امروزه با وجود فواید حاصل از توسعهی اینترنت در صنعت گردشگری بهطور کلی و صنعت هتلداری بهطور خاص، نکتهی چالشبرانگیز برای بخش عرضهی آن است که میزان وفاداری مشتریان در محیط اینترنتی در مقایسه با محیط سنتی و خرید حضوری کاهش یافتهاست. این مسأله لزوم شناخت کاملتر از مفهوم وفاداری الکترونیکی و عوامل تاثیرگذار بر آن بهمنظور اتخاذ راهبردهای مؤثر بازاریابی را مورد تاکید قرار میدهد. در حوالی این موضوع، هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر شناسایی ابعاد کیفیت وبسایتهای ارایهکنندهی خدمات اقامت در هتل، بهعنوان یکی از عوامل مرتبط با فرایند وفادارسازی مشتریان است. بهمنظور بررسی نقش احتمالی متغیر تجربهی قبلی رزرو اینترنتی اتاق هتل در تعدیل شدت روابط الگوی تحقیق، جامعهی آماری در دو گروه مشتریان بالقوه و مشتریان فعلی دستهبندی و دادههای گروه اول با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری تصادفی و دادههای گروه دوم بدون انجام نمونهگیری و دعوت از همه اعضاء جامعهی آماری گردآوری شد. ابزار گردآوری دادهها، پرسشنامه و روشهای تحلیل دادهها، آنووا، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و الگویابی معادلات ساختاری با رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزئی است. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که مهمترین ابعاد کیفیت الکترونیکی عبارت است از: پاسخگویی و تحویل بی نقص، امنیت، طراحی وبسایت، و کاربردی بودن. همچنین نتایج حاصل از الگوی مفهومی نشان داد که در هر دو گروه مشتریان بالقوه و فعلی، کیفیت الکترونیکی بر متغیرهای اعتماد، وفاداری و رضایت الکترونیکی و از طرفی، اعتماد بر وفاداری الکترونیکی تأثیر مثبت دارد. نقاط تمایز آن است که برای مشتریان فعلی بر خلاف مشتریان بالقوه، رضایت بر اعتماد الکترونیکی و برای مشتریان بالقوه بر خلاف مشتریان فعلی، رضایت بر وفاداری الکترونیکی تأثیر مثبت دارد. تحلیل متغیر تجربهی قبلی رزرو اینترنتی نیز بیانگر آن است که این متغیر سبب تعدیل شدت روابط بین متغیرهای اعتماد و وفاداری و از سوی دیگر، کیفیت و اعتماد الکترونیکی نمیشود.
Exploring the Relationships between E-quality, E-trust, E-Satisfaction and E-loyalty in Hoteling Industry
Abstract Nowadays, despite the fact that development of internet offers a variety of benefits to tourism and hospitality industry, the challenging point for the supply side is that the degree of customers’ loyalty in the virtual milieu has decreased as compared with the traditional one. This issue places emphasis on gaining a better understanding of e-loyalty concept and its influencing factors so as to develop effective marketing strategies. The first purpose of the present investigation is to identify quality dimensions of websites providing accommodation services in hotels as one of the relevant factors to the process of making customers loyal. To examine the role of past experience of online hotel reservation in moderating the intensity of relationships between the variables, statistical population were classified into two groups of potential and existing customers. The former’s data were gathered through random sampling and the latter’s without sampling in a way that whole statistical population were invited to participate in the survey. The data collected by self-reported questionnaires were analyzed through such methods as ANOVA, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling based on partial least squares approach. The findings obtained indicate that the most significant dimensions of e-quality are: responsiveness and fulfillment, security, website design and functionality. Based on the findings of the model for the both groups of customers, e-quality has a significant positive impact on e-trust, e-loyalty and e-satisfaction and on the other hand, the same impact holds true for e-trust on e-loyalty. The distinctions between two groups are that for the existing customers, e-satisfaction influences significantly e-trust, while for the potential customers, e-satisfaction influences significantly e-loyalty, compared to their counterpart group. The analysis of past experience of online hotel reservation also suggests that this variable does not moderate the relationships between e-trust and e-quality as well as e-trust and e-loyalty.
Introduction In the 1990s, along with the advent of internet use in the commercial activities as an efficient tool in the new marketing, the idea of e-loyalty was beginning to create. The literature shows that increasing just five percent on the current customers will give rise to 25 to 95 percent revenue. The important reasons are due to the decreased advertisement budget for attracting new customers, mouth-to-mouth advertisement through the loyal customers, forecasting income-making flows, etc. On the other hand, despite its benefits, internet advancement brought about a number of disadvantages to the suppliers including shifting to other customers with just a couple clicks, less propensity among women than men to online shopping, less physical evaluating power of the customers that result in dissatisfaction, mistrust and increased expectation. Accordingly, making customer loyal on the Internet milieu will be viewed as a very complex issue compared to that of the physical conditions. The current study aims to achieve into two purposes; the main purpose is designing and measuring the dimensions of electrical qualities (quality dimensions of websites) in terms of potential customers’ views in the hotel industry as well as researching on the variables of trust, satisfaction, and the way these above-mentioned variables effect on loyal creating among two disparate groups of the potential and current customers. Another less important purpose of the study is comparing their qualities among those groups.
Materials and Methods The conceptual model of the current research is based on seven hypotheses. First hypothesis proposes that the variable ‘trust’ has a positive effect on the customers’ loyalty. Second hypothesis suggests that ‘satisfaction’ has a positive effect on the customers’ royalty. Third hypothesis states that ‘quality’ has a positive effect on the customers’ royalty. Fourth hypothesis proposes that ‘quality’ has a positive effect on the customers’ trust. Fifth hypothesis suggests that ‘quality’ has a positive effect on the customers’ satisfaction. Sixth hypothesis states that ‘satisfaction’ has a positive effect on the customers’ trust. Seventh hypothesis suggests that ‘trust’ has more influence on creating loyalty among the potential customers compared to the current customers of online service providers.This research consists of two stages and each stage had its own questionnaire. In order to analyze the e-quality dimensions and its related measurements, the first stage, the pre-test, was carried out among the students of the universities of AllameTabatabaei, university of Tehran and also the uneducated youths so as to prioritize the following dimensions that were abundant and congruous in a variety of the reviewed articles including functionality, fulfillment, design, responsiveness, security. Having analyzed the measurements of e-quality in the pre-test stage, in the second stage, the measurements with a better variance were employed in developing the second questionnaire. The statistical population comprised of two different groups; the first group are the university students chosen on the pre-test stage as the potential customers of the website (Iranhotelonline) and the second group comprised of the current customers who reserved online at least one time in the past.Iranhotelonline has been working on hotel reservations in Iran
Discussions and results A Cronbach coefficient alpha was conducted to determine the internal consistency of the scale used. The value of Cronbach alpha coefficients for the variables is more than 0.6 that is a good score except the variable trust among the existing customers had the coefficient 0.522. (Table 1).The demographic factors were also examined to see whether they might have a significant influence on the participants’ perceptions of e-trust, e-satisfaction, e-quality, and e-loyalty. The ANOVA test was employed to answer this question and the results suggest that the education does not have a significant effect on the potential customer groups (fig. 2). As for the participants’ gender, women showed significantly higher e-loyalty than men however this significant difference was not shown among the existing customers (fig. 3). Conclusions The results of factor analysis on the basis of data collected from the participants who had at least one time online reservation experience showed that the most important e-quality dimensions include responsiveness and fulfillment, security, website design, and functionality. Therefore, the first suggestion of the study is to operationalize the four mentioned dimensions and their measurements on the hotel websites. It should be noted that although the security scored highest average among the other three dimensions, the determined variance shows that the variable of security is ranked after the variables responsiveness and fulfillment. Hence, it is suggested that the managers consider putting into operation the e-quality dimensions of instant responsiveness, respectable behavior and fulfillment. The managers should also know that offering a main service is not sufficient without considering the augment services. Based on the findings of the study, responsiveness and fulfillment are the most important parts of core and augmented services on the hotel websites. In fact, what caused the competitive advantage to a company is its augmented services not its main services.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
hoteling industry, e-loyalty, e-quality, e-trust, e-satisfaction, moderating variable of past experience of online hotel reservation