این مقاله به تبیین ویژگیهای گردشگری مذهبی و اهمیت آن در رشد و توسعهی همهجانبهی کشور با توجه به سیماى گردشگرى مذهبى در ایران میپردازد. این تحقیق در پی پاسخگویی به این سؤال اساسی است که عوامل مؤثر بر توسعهی گردشگری مذهبی درکشور کدامند؟ چه راهبردهایی را میتوان جهت توسعهی گردشگری مذهبی درکشور تدوین و ارائه نمود؟ در این تحقیق، حمایتهای معنوی و حمایتهای مادی بهعنوان متغیر مستقل و توسعهی گردشگری مذهبی در کشور بهعنوان متغیر وابسته در نظر گرفته شده است. در نهایت ضمن بررسی نظرات پژوهشگران مرتبط با پژوهشگاه سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری مرکز ملی مطالعات جهانی شدن در کلانشهر تهران، نتایج حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل آماری تحقیق در خصوص رابطهی حمایتهای مادی و معنوی با توسعهی گردشگری مذهبی در کشور ارائه شده است. روش به کار گرفته شده در این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی، از نظر نوع دادهها کمّی و از نظر نحوهی گردآوری دادهها ، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی است. روش نمونهگیری از جامعه در این تحقیق، تصادفی ساده بوده است و روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه نیز با استفاده از دیدگاه خبرگان و نیز آزمون آلفای کرونباخ مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است.
Assessment of the Factors Affecting the Development of Religious Tourism in Iran
Abstract This article explores the factors having impact on the development of religious tourism in Iran. The paper describes the concept, the characteristics and the particularities of religious tourism and its importance in the multidimensional development of the country, with due attention to the prospects of religious tourism in Iran. The article seeks to elaborate on the main question: what are the factors that influence the development of religious tourism in the country? What strategies could be formulated and implemented for the development of religious tourism in Iran? Based on the analytical model of the research, it analyzes the role of material and moral supports and their impact on the development of religious tourism of the country. In this study, moral and material supports are regarded as independent variable and the development of religious tourism in Iran is considered as the dependent variable. In order to scrutinize on the main question, and to examine the consistency and reliability of the questionnaire the opinions of scholars associated with the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism as well as those of the Iranian National Center for Globalization Studies in Tehran are tested and measured by using the Cronbach’s alpha in view of investigating the results of the statistical analysis of the relationship between the material and moral supports and the development of tourism in the country
Introduction The tourism industry is one of the most rentable activities in each national economy, especially in terms of employment and prosperity. It leads to further advantages in the fields of communication, politics, culture and international relations. Therefore, an important number of the countries pay due attention to the attractions of this activity as a strategic instrument for developing their own economies. In this regards, religion is one of the main motivations for tourism industry. Today, tourists visiting the holy places and shrines are increasing. Religious tourism in the context of the employment and economic activities is of utmost profitability. Its benefits in terms of economic, social and cultural aspects for the people and government of each country are noteworthy. Religious tourism plays a great role in promoting international understanding, reinforcing the communication of nations and fostering peaceful coexistence of people. In addition, the growth of investment in religious tourism can enhance urban and rural development. It paves the way for the realization of sustainable development by promoting the interaction between the four main pillars of the development which are economic, social, cultural, environmental. While improving the quality of life of hosts and meeting the visitors’ demand, it increases their social consciousness of environmental protection and preservation of human resources and improves humankind’s perfection and moral personality.
Materials and Methods The data collected through the questionnaires were put to test and thoroughly examined on the basis of the conceptual model and the hypothesis of the research. As regards the descriptive statistics, they have been examined and analyzed by resorting to such statistical methods and indices as absolute and relative frequency, mean and variance and with respect to deductive statistics resort has been made to the multi variable correlation and regression analysis and Fisher’s analysis of variance. The research is based on the analysis of the viewpoints of the target group in order to investigate on the role of moral and material support for the development of religious tourism in Iran. In order to test the importance of each factor, the paper has sub-divided the support to religious tourism into two moral and material factors. Concerning the role of material support to religious tourism, six parameters would be scrutinized on which are: a) Capital investment for the development of structural reform in religious tourism; b) Program planning, policy making and monitoring the developmental trend of religious tourism industry; c) the non-intervention of government in the program implementation or the privatization of the religious tourism industry; d) Credit allocation and sufficient funding to conduct researches on the development of religious tourism industry; e) providing quick and easy access to administrative and financial facilities for the applicants of the establishment of training centers, tourist centers including hotels, hotel apartments, transportation fleet structure and various sites of religious tourism in accordance with international standards; f) Promotion of capital investment for advertisements, public education and establishment of a network of computerized and electronic remote training in the field of religious tourism industry.
Concerning the role of moral support to religious tourism, six parameters would be scrutinized on which are: a) promoting the culture of religious tourism in the society; b) demonstrating the moral and material effectiveness of religious tourism industry in the life of all citizens; c) demonstrating the importance of the study of curricula relating to religious tourism industry which can create jobs for young graduates; d) promoting scientific and social status of professors and instructors and other stakeholders of training system in religious tourism industry; e)holding of international Congresses, national seminars and specialized symposia on religious tourism; f) providing opportunity for the exchange of professors and students as well as the exchange of ideas regarding the ways to promote the technology of religious tourism industry between diverse countries and nations.
These twelve sub-hypotheses were put into the questionnaire which was formulated based on the Likert method of summated rating, and distributed among 200 persons and tested based on Cronbach’s alpha and K-square in order to examine the correlation between the independent and dependent variables with due attention to the consistency coefficient of each sub-hypothesis.
Discussion and Results After the analysis of the questionnaires it has been revealed that, based on the view of interrogated persons, moral supports are more important than material supports for the development of religious tourism in Iran. The first important factor is to demonstrate the material and moral effects of religious tourism industry in the lives of all citizens. It means that people should observe the concrete impact of religious tourism on their own lives in order to be encouraged and motivated for the development of this industry. The second important factor based on the view of interrogated persons is related to one of material variables that is program planning, policy making and monitoring the developmental trend of religious tourism industry. It means that having a comprehensive prospect of the process and the future of religious tourism industry is of utmost importance.
Conclusion In the light of whatever has been expressed, based on the examination of twelve sub-hypotheses, it becomes clear that the impact of the moral factors over the development of religious tourism in Iran is more important than that of material factors. In this regard, due attention should be paid to “change management” which correlates the structures with the processes and agencies. Taking into consideration the importance of the two factors that are: the concretization of religious tourism in the lives of citizens and the planning and systemic monitoring of the trends of religious tourism industry, the government should in collaboration with all stakeholders put its efforts for providing the grounds for the development of religious tourism in the country. Therefore, the illustration and demonstration of the positive outcomes of the religious tourism industry in the domestic and international environment as well as building positive image of the religious tourism industry in the country can facilitate the international investments and can encourage domestic investors to develop this industry.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
tourism؛ religious tourism؛ development of religious tourism؛ material support؛ moral support, Iran