مفهوم سرمایه اجتماعی به عنوان یک مفهوم فرا رشتهای در تحلیلهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی توسعه جوامع به ویژه توسعه گردشگری مطرح شده است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی نقش سرمایه اجتماعی شهروندان ایلامی در جذب گردشگر میباشد. این تحقیق توصیفی تحلیلی از نوع کاربردی است، جامعهآماری این پژوهش شهروندان ایلامی و گردشگران این شهرستان در سال92-93 میباشند. روش نمونهگیری تصادفی طبقهای است با حجم نمونه323نفر برای خانوارهای ایلامی و242 نفر برای گردشگران انجامگرفته ابزار گردآوری دادهها شامل دو پرسشنامه سرمایه اجتماعی و جذب گردشگر است نتایج حاصل از تحلیل فرضیهها حاکی از آن است که بین سرمایه اجتماعی شهروندان ایلامی و جذب گردشگر رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. نتیجه به دست آمده از آزمون رگرسیون که به بررسی تأثیر متغیرهای مستقل(بعد ارتباطی- شناختی و ساختاری سرمایه اجتماعی) بر متغیر وابسته(جذب گردشگر) میپردازد نشان داد که هر سه بعد ارتباطی- ساختاری و شناختی سرمایه اجتماعی بر جذب گردشگر تأثیر داشتهاند بهطوری که بعد شناختی سرمایه اجتماعی به تنهایی حدود 88 درصد تغییرات را در متغیر وابسته جذب گردشگر تبیین نموده است. همچنین بعد ساختاری و رابطهای سرمایه اجتماعی در مجموع60 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته را تبیین نمودهاند و در آخر درصد تبیین هر سه متغیر رابطهای، شناختی و ساختاری 63 درصد بوده است.
The Role of Social Capital of the Citizens of Ilam Province in Attracting Tourists
Abstract The social capital concept is proposed as Interdisciplinary concept in both social and economic analysis of communities' development especially in tourism extension. This study aims at analyzing Ilam's citizens' social capital in tourist attractions. This research is the analytical descriptive and applied one. The statistical population of the present research consists of Ilam's citizens and its tourists in 2014-2015. The sampling method is categorical random way in combination with 323 people amongst Ilam's families and 242 people for tourists was conducted. The data collection tool includes social capital and tourists' questionnaire. The results of analysis of hypotheses reveals that there is a meaningful relationship between Ilam's citizens social capital and tourists attractions. The finding of regression test shows That all three dimensions, i. e, relational ,structural and cognitive of social capital have effects on tourists attractions, so that the cognitive dimension, itself does some changes about 88% in the dependent variable of tourist attraction. Also, the structured and relational dimensions in social capital made totally 60 percent change in the dependent variable and at last, the three relational, cognitive and structural variables were 63 percent. Introduction The social capital is a concept which has sociological background. The term "social capital" was applied at first in the classic work of Jane Jackob namely, "Life and Death in America large cities". In Iran, the social capital subject, has been to work from 2001 in different scientific branches. In the literature, it can be founded in some researches by: Alvani et al (2010), Azkia and Ghafari (2005), Alvani and shirvani (2006), Amirkhami and pour Ezat (2008), Samarin and moghimi (2010), sorkh kalaei et al (2013). In this research, it has been attempted to study any relationship between social capital and tourist attraction among Ilam's families and tourists and also, to clarify any role of social capital factors in relevance to tourist attraction. Research Methodology This research is conducted as a descriptive analytic and applied one by a particular sample volume of 323 people for Ilam's families and 242 people for its tourists obtained by Cochran formula. The data analysis tool consisting of regression analysis, Pearson correlation, descriptive statistics, K- S test, and also, SPSS software. The data analysis tool includes: a/ library studies, and b/ Filed studies using the two social capital and tourist attraction questionnaires in which their reliability were obtained by the Cronbach’s alpha test about 0.75 and 0.85, respectively. Research findings Hypothetical tests In order to study any relationship between research variables (i. e., Structural, relational and cognitive dimensions of social capital), the pearson correlation coefficient was uses. Main Hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between Ilam's citizens social capital and tourists attractions. summary and conclusions This research was conducted in order to analysis the relationship between Ilam's citizens social capital and tourists attractions. The sample volume of the research was 480 people. For data collections, the researcher used questionnaire which its reliability was calculated about 0.75 and 0.84 After distribution and questionnaires collections. the data collecting was done and so, using the percentage and frequency distribution and mean, their descriptions were conducted and also, in order to evaluate the research hypotheses, the K- S test, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were applied. Afterwards, the following results have been illustrated through collected data. The main Research Hypothesis: there is a meaningful relationship between Ilam's citizens social capital with (Sig 0.007) and the correlational coefficient 0.615. Hypothesis 1: there is a meaningful relationship in structural dimension between Ilam's citizens social capital and tourists attractions with the (Sig 0.004) and the correlational coefficient 0.460. Hypothesis 2: there is a meaningful relationship in the relational dimension between Ilam's citizens social capital and tourists attractions with (Sig 0.020) and correlational coefficient 0.580. Hypothesis 3: there is a meaningful relationship in the cognitive dimension between Ilam'a citizens social capital and tourist attractions with( sig 0.004) and correlational coefficient 0.720. The results obtained the regression test which analyzes the effect of independent variables (relational – cognitive and structural dimensions of social capital) on the dependent variable (i. e., tourists attractions) have shown that all three relational, structural and cognitive dimensions have effect on tourists attractions.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Social Capital, Tourist, Structural Dimension, Cognitive Dimension, Relational Dimension, Ilam city