با افزایش روزافزون جمعیت و نیاز بشر به گردش و تفریح، توسعه مناطق گردشگری جز ملزومات جوامع کنونی بشمار میرود، توسعه این مناطق و حضور انسان در بستر طبیعت آثاری نیز به همراه خواهد داشت. برای سیر در راستای توسعه پایدار گردشگری، ارزیابی آثار زیستمحیطی اینگونه فعالیتها قبل از اجرا و ارائه راهکارهایی جهت کاهش آثار مضر آنها، امری اجتنابناپذیر است. به دلیل ارتباط مستقیم انسان و طبیعت در مناطق گردشگری، آثار ناشی ازاینگونه فعالیتها، از پیچیدگی و پیوستگی خاصی برخوردارند، ازاینرو، استفاده از روشهای سنتی ارزیابی آثار زیستمحیطی کارایی لازم را دارا نمیباشد. در تحقیق حاضر، با استفاده از فرآیند تحلیل شبکهای فازی (FANP)، روش ارزیابی آثار زیستمحیطی ماتریس سریع (RIAM)، مورد اصلاح قرار گرفت و با استفاده از روش اصلاح شده حاصل، به ارزیابی آثار زیستمحیطی توسعهی منطقه گردشگری اوان پرداخته شد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که، در روش RIAM معمولی مجموع دامنه عددی امتیازات در گزینهی اجرا مثبت و در گزینهی عدم اجرا منفی است و در روش RIAM اصلاحشده، هر دو عدد منفی هستند، ولی مانند روش اول گزینهی اجرا ارجح بر گزینهی عدم اجراست، زیرا میزان آثار منفی آن کمتر برآورد شده است. در روش اصلاحشده آثار توسعهی بهتر و واقعگرایانهتر مورد ارزیابی قرارگرفته است.
The Environmental Impact Assessment of Tourism Projects (Case study: Evan tourism region)
Extended Abstract With the daily increase in world population, and considering the human need for travel and recreation, development of tourism regions is one of the necessities of every modern society. Due to the direct contact between people and nature in tourism regions, the resulting inter-related consequences of this contact are of special complexity. In this research, the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method was modified using Fuzzy Analysis Network Process (FANP) and the modified method was employed to evaluate the environmental effects of developing the Evan tourism region, because the modified method could evaluate the consequences of this development better and more realistically.
Introduction Tourism can have various and considerable effects on tourism regions. These effects may be of social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental nature. Considering the complexity and wide range of tourism activities, their resultant effects are also numerous and of inter-related dimensions that must be considered in studies conducted on tourism (Mason, 2003). Basically EIA is demanded for two separate reasons. The first one is to analyze systematically both the beneficial and the harmful environmental impacts caused by various developmental undertakings. Particularly the aim is to understand the significant impacts a development may cause. Secondly, EIA process enables framed conversation about the project and its impacts with the players of the society and the public (Barker and Wood, 1999; Canter, 1996). Tourism effects cannot be simply classified as social, environmental, or economical because they tend to have many inter-related dimensions (Mason, 2003). Therefore, multi-criteria decision making methods can be used to overcome this problem. This study, in which the RIAM method modified by Fuzzy Analysis Network Process (FANP) was used, environmental impact assessment of tourism projects. The Evan tourism region in Qazvin was selected for the study.
The case study Evan is situated between 50°24ʹ09ʺ and 50°28ʹ53ʺ eastern longitude and 36°28ʹ03ʺ and 36°31ʹ29ʺ northern latitude. It borders the crest of the Kooh-e Langeh heights on the east, the crest of the heights west of Zarabad on the west, the crest of the Kooh-e Iman heights on the north, and extends to a distance of 500 meters from the Kushk village on the south.
Materials and Methods FANP Analysis Network Process (ANP) is a complicated method for relating components of the decision making process to each other through substituting the hierarchical structure for the network structure (Zebardast, 2010). Therefore, this is an ideal method for modeling and establishing interactions and dependencies between indices. Moreover, considering the ambiguity and uncertainty involved in the judgment of decision makers about the components, fuzzy logic can be used in which a range of values is considered to express the uncertainties (Karimi, 2014).
RIAM The concept of rapid impact assessment matrix, developed by Pastakia in 1998, is based on a standard definition of important evaluation criteria; and it is a tool for organizing, analyzing, and presenting results obtained from a comprehensive evaluation of environmental effects (Sharafi et al, 2008). This method presents special evaluation components for defining the stages of identifying the potential environmental effects (Mondal et al, 2009).
Combining two methods In the RIAM method that is modified by Fuzzy Analysis Network Process, the weights obtained from the FANP are multiplied by the sum of the scores to calculate the total modified scores.
Discussion and Results FANP Considering the views of the experts, and using the FANP technique, paired comparisons were made between the indices and components.
Effects on traffic
Economy of the local society
Historic and natural attractions
Public sanitation and health
Education and training
Effects on sensitive ecosystems
Effects on landscapes and sights
Volume of water sources
Quality of water sources
Landslide and drift
Weights of sub-criteria
Table 1: Weights of sub-criteria Source: calculations made in this research
RIAM Environmental impact assessment related to executing, or not executing, the project was carried out using the Pastakia matrix method to identify the positive and negative environmental effects and to offer corrective strategies. In this evaluation, activities in the project were broken down and their effects were specified.
Table 2: Summing up the numbers and ranges of the effects related to the options
Range of effects Options
Final modified score
Not executing the project
Executing the project
Source: calculations made in this research
Conclusions In this research, modified results of the relationships between the effects were also investigated using a combination of Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix and Fuzzy Analysis Network Process. These results, obtained from the comparison between the sums of the ranges of modified scores (ES*), conform to those of regular Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix; and execution of the project is deemed appropriate. The difference is that the new results indicate the negative effects of executing the project are greater than the positive ones, but these negative effects are fewer in comparison with those related to the option of not executing the projects. Based on the above conclusion and considering the positive effects of the project, considering that most of the negative effects are insignificant ones, and due to the possibility of reducing these negative effects through execution of management programs and environmental monitoring in the implementation and utilization processes, it is possible to execute the above-mentioned project in the region. In tourism projects, separating the effects of tourism from each other without considering their relationships does not seem to be very logical and results in differences between the obtained results and the actual reality in the environment, because there is a close relationship between these effects and the visitors (tourists). In the modified method used in this research, the obtained better represent the real situation better because the relationships between the effects are considered.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
EIA, RIAM, Tourism Development, FANP, the Evan tourism region