قرن بیست و یکم سده بهرهگیری از فرصتهای تجاری ارزشمند در بخش خدماتی به ویژه گردشگری است. چیزی که امروزه در این صنعت رقابتی اهمیت پیدا کرده بحث کارآفرینیگرایی و نوآوریگرایی بازیگران این صنعت در ارائه تجربیاتی جدید و منحصربه فرد به مشتریان این صنعت دارای رشد سریع میباشد. اگرچه تحقیقات زیادی در حوزه مشتریگرایی و کارآفرینی و نوآوری در سازمانهای مختلف انجام شده است اما تحقیقات کمی دربارهی این موضوعات در صنعت گردشگری انجام شده است. هدف این تحقیق بررسی تأثیرات مستقیم و غیر مستقیم این متغییرها بر یکدیگر و بر عملکرد میباشد. دادهها مورد نیاز با استفاده از پرسشنامه از 278 نفر از مدیران و کارکنان دفاتر خدمات مسافرتی و جهانگردی دارای مجوز بند "ب" استان مازندران برای بررسی تأثیر متغییرها بر یکدیگر جمع آوری شد. تحلیل دادهها از طریق معادلات ساختاری و روش حداقل مربعات جزیی به کمک نرم افزار SMART-PLS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که کارآفرینیگرایی و نوآوریگرایی بطور مستقیم بر عملکرد کسب و کار دفاتر خدمات مسافرتی و جهانگردی تأثیر دارند. همچنین مشتریگرایی و کارآفرینیگرایی بطور غیر مستقیم و از طریق متغیر میانجی نوآوریگرایی بر عملکرد کسب وکار دفاتر تأثیر میگذارند.
Effects of Consumerism and Entrepreneurships in Innovation and Business in Tourism
(Case Study: Tour Operators in Mazandaran)
Extended Abstract Twenty-first century is the century of exploration of new trade opportunity in the service sector, especially tourism. Today what important is in this competitive industry is the entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness of players of this industry in delivering unique experience to customers. Although there is much research in the field of customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness in different organizations but few researches has been done on these issues in tourism industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of these variables on each other and on performance. The data required was gathered from 278 manager and staff of tour and travel agencies in Mazandaran province. Data were analyzed by structural equation model method by SMART-PLS software. Results showed that entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness have a direct effect on business performance of tour and travel agencies. Also, customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation indirectly effect business performance.
Introduction Today due to intense market competition, globalization and technological progress, innovation and differentiation has become a necessity for any company. Businesses also for market success and competitive advantage have to discover new opportunities and develop new products and services and new markets and put customer orientation at the center of their business competitiveness. In recent years, interest in the concept of customer orientation, innovation and entrepreneurship by researchers in different fields has increased. Despite the fact that a large proportion of the economy is service sector and a lot of research has been done on service organizations, but little empirical research has been done on innovation in services and few researches about the effect of innovation, customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on performance of firms providing services to customers has been done (Tajeddini, 2010). The tourism industry is facing with customer demand, new rules, globalization and the impact of technology. All of these important factors significantly change its prospects and cause new challenges and new requirements for them. So businesses need to be innovative in this area, to explore market opportunities and like other services organizations create long term relationships with their customers. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of customer orientation, entrepreneurship, innovativeness on business performance of tourism travel agencies. Although the subject of customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness has become an interesting subject for researchers in different areas but there is few studies on the simultaneously effect of these variables on business performance, especially in tourism industry (Sandvik and sandvik, 2003). This show the importance and necessity of further research in the tourism industry. So in the following sections we review the research subject literature, and data analysis, conceptual model propose and discussed findings of the investigation.
Materials and Methods This study is a descriptive – survey investigation of market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness and business performance. Data required was gathered from 278 manager and staff of tour and travel agencies in Mazandaran province. Sampling was done by clustering. Data was gathered by questioner and analyzed by structural equation model method by SMART-PLS software.
Discussion and Results Demographic characteristics of the sample showed that 56.1 percent of respondents were male and 43.9% of the respondents are women. 61.9% of the sample of undergraduate education, 34.2 percent has masters and 11 percent have a doctoral degree. 41.4% of the sample under the age of 30 years, 34.9 percent of the age group 30 to 50 years and 23.7% over 50 years old.For determining reliability of the questionnaire in this research, we used Cronbach's alpha and Composite reliability. Cronbach‟s alpha for constructs are: Customer orentation: 0.72, entrepreneurial orientation: 0.79, Innovativeness: 0.75, business performance: 0.87. Composite reliability for constructs is acceptable too. For determining validity, convergent validity was assessed for all constructs and indicators. All factor loadings ranged from .5 to .8 and all AVE coefficient ranged from .5 to .6 were statistically significant. In proposed model, the customer orientation – performance path is negative and statistically not significant so H1 was rejected. But the indirect impact of customer orientation on business performance through innovativeness is accepted. Also the direct and indirect impact of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance is accepted. Furthermore the direct impact of innovativeness on business performance is positive and significant so H5 is accepted too.
Conclusions This paper presents a model of the relationship between customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness and business performance in tourism and travel agencies in Mazandaran province of Iran. After reviewing the relevant literature, related variables were identified and the relevant analytical model was presented. Simultaneously investigating direct and indirect effect of variables in this industry is the contribution of this study. In addition to this study confirmed previous research results about the direct effect of variables, it also confirmed the indirect effect of customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance through innovativeness. We conclusion that due to the positive impact of customer orientation on business performance of travel agencies, managers should organizing their goals in order to satisfy the needs and demands of customers. Also due to the direct and indirect impact of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance of agencies, they should realize the importance of entrepreneurial activities like calculated risk taking, innovativeness, creativity, opportunity recognition and use them in all of their activities. Moreover, due to the direct impact of innovativeness on business performance, managers have to support new ideas of personnel and encourage them to suppose their new ideas because innovation in services can directly impact on financial and nonfinancial performance like profit, sales growth, and market share and this would finally impact on the satisfaction of their internal and external customers.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness, business performance