هدف این مطالعه بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر وفاداری گردشگران به شهر بندر انزلی و نواحی تفرجگاهی آن است. این مقاله به نقش دلبستگی به مکان، به عنوان میانجی رابطهی میان ارزیابی مثبت گردشگران از تجربهی شهر (رضایتمندی) و وفاداریشان به آن، میپردازد. دو مکان برای مطالعه انتخاب شد: خیابان پاسداران، بلوار انزلی. چرا که طبق مشاهدات، این مکانها مورد استقبال بالاترین تمرکز گردشگران قرار دارند. بنابراین، چارچوب نمونهگیری بر مبنای نمونهگیری خوشهای طراحی و تعیین شد. بدین صورت که این دو خیابان به عنوان دو خوشهی جغرافیایی انتخاب شده و در این دو خوشه از نوع نمونهگیری در دسترس نمونهها انتخاب و اطلاعات مورد نیاز از آنها جمعآوری شد. برمبنای دادههای گردآوری شده از 386 گردشگر (از طریق پرسشنامه) و با استفاده از مدل معادلهی ساختاری، روشن شد که گردشگرانِ رضایتمند سطحی از دلبستگی عاطفی را به شهر میزبان شکل میدهند و سرانجام به آن وفادار میشوند. اگرچه، تمام ابعاد دلبستگی به مکان به لحاظ آماری معنیدار نشدند و نیز ابعاد دلبستگی به مکان و رضایتمندی از قدرت پیشبینی برابری در خصوص ابعاد وفاداری به شهر میزبان برخوردار نبودند. بر مبنای این یافتهها، مفاهیمِ در نظر و عملِ این تحقیق به بحث گذاشته میشوند.
The Relationships between Satisfaction, Attachment, and Behavioral Intentions among Tourists
(Case Study: Bandar-e-Anzali Tourists)
Extended Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that drive tourists' loyalty to the city of Bandar-e Anzali and its promenades. The Authors' analysis focused on the role of place attachment as a mediator of the relationship between tourists' positive evaluation of city experience and their loyalty to it. Based on data gathered from 386 tourists and using structural equation modeling, we found that satisfied tourists develop a moderate level of affective attachment to the host city and ultimately become loyal to it. Not all dimensions of place attachment, however, were statistically significant, nor were dimensions of place attachment and satisfaction of equal valence in their prediction of the host city loyalty dimensions. Based on these findings, both theoretical and practical concepts of this investigation are discussed.
Introduction With fierce competition among tourism destinations, actives in the field of tourism should rank understanding on the significance and meaning of the destination to the visitor. Past research has suggested that ‘customers are attracted and remembered when their needs are met, and they tend to express their satisfaction to others’ (Lee et al. 2011: 1). Given that satisfying experiences of tourists influence their future travel, the maintenance of positive tourist experiences stemming from consistent quality at places and special experiences at it is an actives' top priority in the field of tourism. Therefore, it is important to understand the extent to which tourist satisfaction at a tourism destination contributes to the development of affective attachment and loyalty to it. Some researchers (e.g., Yüksel et al. 2010) demonstrated the utility of place attachment for understanding the satisfaction-loyalty relationship within a holiday destination context. They reported positive associations between place attachment, satisfaction and loyalty. Questions remain, however, concerning the associations among these constructs. Therefore, in an effort to further our understanding of the constructs' relationships, the purpose of this study was to explore factors that drive tourist's behavioral loyalty to Bandar-e Anzali city and its promenades. In this regard, we included the concept of place attachment to assess tourist' attitude toward the host city within a developmental model of conative loyalty. Our analysis focused on the role of place attachment as a mediator of the relationship between tourists' evaluation of city experience and their loyalty to it.
Materials and Methods We chose Bandar-e Anzali city in Guilan, Iran as study site. This study focused on the two places: Pãsdãrãn Street and Anzali Boulevard. As in accordance with observations, this places the highest concentration of tourists are welcomed. Therefore, the sampling frame was designed and determined based on cluster sampling. That is, these two streets were selected as geographical cluster. Then, in these two clusters the samples were selected via accessible sampling. From 26 to 30 March and 29 July to 28 August in 2014, all respondents cooperated. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed and 386 valid questionnaires were gathered. We examined the statistical relationships of different research hypothesizes using Pearson's correlation test and subsequent to that, the causal relationships between variables of study using multiple regression analysis in stepwise method and path analysis. We calculated Correlation and multiple regression coefficients with the software SPSS.
Results Place satisfactionsignificantly predicted all dimensions of place attachment. Place satisfaction had a positive effect on affective attachment, social bonding and place dependence. We also observed that social bonding was significant predictor of all dimensions of conative loyalty against place dependence and affective attachment. Affective attachment had a positive effect on revisit intentions and destination preference. Social bonding had a positive effect on revisit intentions, advocacy and destination preference. Also, Place dependence had a positive effect on revisit intentions and destination preference. Finally, place satisfactionsignificantly predicted all dimensions of conative loyalty. Place satisfaction had a positive effect on revisit intentions, advocacy and destination preference. We further analyzed the indirect effects in order to examine if place attachment was a significant mediator of the relationship between place satisfaction and conative loyalty. It was experimentally demonstrated that place satisfaction had a positive indirect effect on revisit intentions through affective attachment, social bonding and place dependence. Place satisfaction had a positive indirect effect on advocacy through social bonding. Furthermore, place satisfaction had a positive indirect effect on destination preference through affective attachment, social bonding and place dependence.
Discussion and Conclusions In general, our findings support the contention that place attachment plays a mediating role in the relationship between place satisfaction and loyalty to it. In other words, satisfied tourists at a city develop an affective attachment to the city host destinations and ultimately become loyal to that city. Place satisfaction had a direct positive effect on all dimensions of place attachment. Place satisfaction was a stronger predictor of affective attachment than was social bonding and place dependence. These results agree with findings of past researches (e.g., Halpenny 2006; Lee et al. 2011; Stedman 2002). These researchers claim that satisfactory experience within a given place, supported by place-based characteristics, drives people’s attachment to that place. Our results also illustrate that the dimensions of place attachment did not significantly predict all dimensions of place loyalty. Affective attachment and social bonding was found to have a strong positive effect on revisit intentions and destination preference. In return, place dependence significantly predicted all dimensions of conative loyalty. Some researchers (e.g., Halpenny 2006; Yüksel et al. 2010; Lee et al. 2007; Brocato 2006) showed that place attachment result from satisfactory place experiences that positively influence conative loyalty. Regarding available evidence, we can claim that a tourist who experiences emotional ties and meaningful social interactions as well as the special characteristics of a place that meet her or his needs, highly likely, will guarantee conative loyalty of tourist than the place: revisit intentions, advocacy and destination preference. Place satisfaction was found to positively influence all dimensions of conative loyalty. These results agree with findings of past researches. For instance, Tian-Cole et al. (2002) in their work showed that satisfaction with a unique place is a significant predictor of revisit intention and advocacy. Furthermore, Lee et al. (2011) showed that festival satisfaction influence only destination preference. Regarding available evidence, however, this relationship should be investigated further in future investigations. The inclusion of place attachment in the satisfaction-loyalty model provides greater insight on how the maintenance of satisfactory experiences at tourism attractions shapes place loyalty outcomes.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
Bandar-e-Anzali, Behavioral Intentions, holiday destinations, place attachment, Satisfaction