در مقایسهی موضوعات حقوقی و قوانین نقاط مختلف جهان همواره از روشی علمی بهره گرفته میشود، این روششناسی همان علم حقوق تطبیقی است. حقوقدانان در بررسیهای حقوق تطبیقی پس از توصیف دو یا چند نظام حقوقی مختلف به مقایسه و توصیف تحلیل آنها میپردازند به طوری که در انتها بتوانند راه کاری جهت حل معضلات حقوقی ارائه دهند یا پیشنهادی جهت بهبود و توسعهی موضوع مورد بررسی بیان کنند. مشکل عدم توسعهی صنعت توریسم ایران، انگیزهی اصلی طرح این فرضیه شد که «شاید با مقایسهی قوانین گردشگری جمهوریاسلامیایران با قوانین دیگر کشورهای توسعهیافتهی توریستی بتوان به تصحیح قوانین گردشگری ایران دست یافت و شاید بتوان راه حلی برای برون رفت از معظل توسعه نیافتگیِتوریسم ایران، یافت». به این منظور قوانین گردشگری جمهوریاسلامیایران و دیگر کشورهای توسعهیافتهی توریستی به صورت جزءبهجزء در حوزههای مرتبط همچون صدور ویزا، گمرک و قوانین حمل کالای مسافری، ترانزیت خودرو، بیمهی توریستی و محاکم قضایی مقایسه شد. در انتها در پاسخ به این پرسش که «آیا مقایسهی قوانین و مقررات گردشگری جمهوریاسلامیایران با کشورهای توسعهیافتهی توریستی میتواند راه گشای توسعهنیافتگی صنعت توریسم ایران باشد؟» میتوان گفت که: «مجموعهی قوانین و مقررات جمهوری اسلامی ایران در حوزهی توریسم که زیر مجموعهای از حقوق بینالملل خصوصی ایران است جامع و کامل است. لیکن اجرای دقیق مقررات به اضافهی تغییر دیدگاه و تغییر تلقی قانونگذاران در بخش توریسم نسبت به مجموعهی توسعهی پایدار گردشگری– بامشاهدهی روند پویای تصویب و تکوین قوانین و مقررات گردشگری در جهان– نه تنها میتواند باعث تکامل قوانین حقوقی گردشگری در جمهوریاسلامیایران شود بلکه میتواند باعث ارائهی تکنیکها و مدلهای جدید در فرآیندِ توسعهی پایدار توریسم ایران گردد.
Comparing the Laws and Regulations of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Tourism with Developed Countries
Extended Abstract The inherent problem lying with the lack of development in Iranian tourism industry prompted the author of the current research paper to put forward the hypothesis that it would probably be possible to find a solution through comparing the laws and regulations of the Islamic Republic of Iran with those of some developed countries. It is hoped that research projects like the present one can help get this overwhelmingly important industry get moving. For this purpose, the laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran and some developed countries on such areas as visa issuance, customs roles, transportation, cargo and passenger transfer laws, transit insurance and issues related to the judiciary and the courts were compared and contrasted. The current research project ends with an answer to the question: "Can a comparative study of the laws and regulations of the Islamic Republic of Iran and some developed western countries open a way into helping the Iranian tourism industry in order for it to thrive?" To answer the above question, one can safely say that "the laws and regulations of the Islamic Republic of Iran on tourism are thorough in terms of being parts of the Iranian international laws." A proper implementation of such laws, however, can contribute to not only evaluation of laws regarding tourism industry in the Islamic Republic of Iran but it can help introduce new techniques and initiatives in the process of sustainable tourism development.
Introduction Specifying laws and regulations that can provide protection for tourists are extremely important since the growth o tourism and an increase in the number of foreign tourists to a large extent depend on the the laws that protect them in the host countries. Iran is now in dire need of revitalizing its tourism industry; this revitalization is not merely for economic gains but more meant to reintroduce Iran to the world community. The current research, therefore, attempts to widen our understanding of tourism laws in order to have a better and a more improved sustainable development. This research also aims to study tourism laws in different parts of the world and if possible introduce the ones that can help Iranian tourism industry. In order to achieve an answer for this research, the following question should be properly attended to: "Will a comparative study of the laws and regulations of developed countries help improve sustainable tourism development in Iran? And can this ultimately lead to the development of the country?" The subject area of the current research zooms in on Iranian private international laws with an emphasis on tourism and the private international laws of some developed countries with an emphasis on their tourism industry. The time span of the current research includes the governing laws and regulations of the Iranian tourism industry and that of developed countries from the earliest legislation that was written on tourism until 2014. The research location is limited on the one hand to the existing laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran and on the other hand on the laws of some successful developing and developed countries based on development patterns and indexes which are annually set by international institutions.
Research Findings It is assumed that acquiring an Iranian tourist visa can happen within a shorter time than for a British tourist visa.In my comparative research on the governing Iranian tourism laws and regulations and the Malaysian laws, I came to notice that in Malaysia it is possible and quite easy to change a visa to another one; this enables a person to ask for another type of visa while staying in the host country. In relation to customs laws, foreign tourists who leave Iran are exempt from paying tax for 80 dollars while in Germany foreign tourists who leave this country enjoy a tax exemption that equals 175 Euros. According to the customs laws of Germany, you are to show your purchase receipts for the new products that you bought while in Iran this is not the case.The Similarity that exists between Iran and Turkey is in being exempt from tax; unlike Iran, importing Chinese products to this country is, however, forbidden. And there are serious laws that do not allow the exist of Turkish Lyra from the country. In relation to travelling to Iran and travelling to other developed countries with one's own vehicle I found that there are no strict laws and people can enter another country by having proper documents. In the United States of America, however, a vehicle that enters this country should meet its safety and technical standards otherwise it will not be allowed to enter. In relation to the laws and regulations that govern travel insurance, and considering the fact that the governments are not directly responsible for insuring the tourists that enter their countries, the laws of insuring companies will be used as points of reference for insuring them. The Islamic Republic of Iran has certain laws and principles when it comes to foreigners who wish to refer to a court of justice in order to lodge a complaint.
Conclusion An appropriate and precise check of tourists who enter a country can safeguard the safety of their citizens which can ultimately lead to the development of its tourism industry and the its sustainable development. In recent years, Turkey has witnessed tremendous progress which largely it owes to its open doors policy which were initiated in 1990. Lawmakers should also bear in mind that rigorous policies that both EU and the United States have implemented against raw foods are considered as important yardsticks of development in a country's hygiene standards. Such measures will drastically minimize the health hazards that the import of infected meat and foods can pose to the citizens of a country. Nowadays, the important place that the insurance industry has in the world economy is no secret. The profit that the insurance companies reap is very high and the need for prevention and safety has become an important factor in its growth. And that is why establishing certain laws and regulations that can force the entrance of tourists from special points of entry along with advertising of travel insurance companies can bring huge profits for the country's insurance industry. Finally, the legal deficiencies in the tourism sector can be located through analysts and experts' meticulous research but in some cases the legal gaps that exists in our legal system can be modified only by studying and probably using the laws that are in place and are being enforced on foreign tourists that visit certain developed countries discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Tourism, Laws and Regulations, Comparative Law, Islamic Republic of Iran, Tourism in Developed Countries.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
Tourism, Laws and Regulations, Comparative Law, Islamic Republic of Iran, Tourism in Developed Countries