2دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه مازندران
هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، بررسی رفتار شکایتی مشتریان در هتلها است. جامعهی آماری پژوهش حاضر شامل مشتریان هتلهای سه ستاره و بالاتر در شهرستان ساری است که از بین آنها تعداد 384 نفر با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری اتفاقی انتخاب شدند. در این تحقیق برای سنجش متغیرها از پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. به منظور سنجش روایی پرسشنامه از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شد. پایایی پرسشنامه به روش آلفای کرونباخ که با استفاده از نرم افزار اس پی اس اس محاسبه گردیده، 916/0 بوده است. جهت آزمون فرضیههای پژوهش از تکنیک معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار آموس استفاده شد. یافتههای پژوهش حاکی از این است که مقابلههای مساله مدار و اجتنابی تاثیر منفی و مقابلهی هیجان مدار تاثیر مثبت بر اقدام به شکایت مشتریان دارد. هوش هیجانی تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار روی مقابلههای مساله مدار و هیجان مدار و تاثیر منفی روی مقابلهی اجتنابی دارد. همچنین اثر هر دو متغیر خودکارآمدی و تحمل ابهام بر روی مقابلهی مساله مدار مثبت و بر روی مقابلههای هیجان مدار و اجتنابی منفی بوده است. از سوی دیگر نتایج این پژوهش نشان دهنده تغییرات در جنبههای روانی و اجتماعی است.
An Analysis of Customers' Complaint Behavior and Effects of Personal Characteristics
Today, services trivial components of a good economy but are of immense importance in any economy that provides services. An important part that is related to service industry is tourism. In recent years, tourism has had great influence on economic, social and cultural events. As a matter of fact, tourism has now become world's number one service sector industry. In marketing, the most favored strategy is to retain the existing customers and attract new customers. Considering the impact of the services provided and the customers' experiences, it is especially important to consider the complaints of the customers. In fact, an organization can survive if it meets consumers’ needs. In hotel industry there is a high level of interaction between employees and clients; and clients' dissatisfaction and complaints may sometimes be completely eliminated. When good services are not provided then inevitably there will be consumer dissatisfaction. Understanding the behavior of consumer complaints as a source of useful information to improve the quality of service is very important for hotels. The purpose of present study is to investigate the customer complaint behavior in hotels.
Materials and Methodology
In the present study, the research and development of e-applications in terms of data collection, descriptive and using survey is conducted. The population of the study consists of customers of three-star hotels and above in the city of Sari who between them 384 people with random sampling were selected. In this study, in order to measure variables a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: the first part contained information about respondents such as: gender, age, education, marital status and employment status. The second part, customer surveys hotels inemotional intelligence, self-efficacy, tolerance of ambiguity and coping strategies and their impact on customer complaints. In order to measure the validity of the questionnaire factor analysis was used. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha with SPSS16 software which was 0.916. In order to test the hypotheses, research from structural equation modeling was used by using AMOS software.
Discussion and Results
The results showed that denial and problem-focused coping have a negative impact, and emotion-focused coping has a positive impact on costumers’ complaints in coping and resolving the problem without complaint. For service providers, the consumers actively solve the problem of dealing with service failure and suppress the emotional part, provide an opportunity to cooperate in the service recovery options. Emotional intelligence has a positive impact on problem and emotion focused coping and negative impact on denial. In other words, customers are better able to manage their emotions and also a failure of settlement services, and the adaptive strategies of avoid anceavoid such as problem-focused and emotion focused. Also both of self-efficacy and ambiguity tolerance have a positive impact on problem-focused coping and negative impact on emotion-focused and denial. Finally results showed that customers’ complaints behavior associated with their gender and women more complain than men.
The current research studies the psychology and the behavior of customers in marketing. Previous research on coping with the study results with improved service failure. Particularly, the study focused on three intrinsic impacts on coping strategies, consumer engagement at an event-overshadowed service gives emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and to lerance of ambiguity. Unlike previous studies, the current study did not examine purely functional aspects of a service offense, but its psychological and social aspects. The results showed changes that would happen in the psychological and social aspects.
Keywords: Costumer Complaint Behavior, Coping, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, Ambiguity Tolerance
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