صنعت هتلداری از مهمترین عوامل توسعهی گردشگری است و اولین دغدغهی گردشگران در ورود به مناطق گردشگری یافتن هتل مناسب برای اقامت است. از این رو توجه به مدیریت مناسب هتلها امری ضروری است. هدف این پژوهش شناخت اثر مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری بر ارزش طول عمر مشتری با تبیین نقش میانجی کیفیت رابطه در صنعت هتلداری است. روش مورد استفاده در این تحقیق توصیفی – همبستگی است که برای تحلیل دادهها از مدل معادلات ساختاری استفاده شده است. جامعهی آماری تحقیق شامل مشتریان هتلهای واقع در شهرایلام است که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده و فرمول نمونهگیری کوکران برای جوامع نامحدود، حجم نمونه به تعداد 348 نفر انتخاب گردیده است. ابزار جمع آوری دادهها پرسشنامه استاندارد بوده که پایایی آن با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ 90 درصد به دست آمده است. دادههای پژوهش با استفاده از نرمافزار لیزرل مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته که نتایج حاکی از آن است مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری بر کیفیت رابطه تاثیر مثبت و معناداری داشته و همچنین کیفیت رابطه بر ارزش طول عمر مشتری و ابعاد آن(میزان استفاده از خدمات، وفاداری، تبلیغات و تمایل به مراجعهی مجدد) تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد.
An Examination of Relation between Management of Customer Relationship with Quality of Relationship and Customers' Lifetime Value in Hotel Industry (Case study: City of Ilam)
Extended Abstract Hotel industry is an important pillar of tourism which needs modern technologies such as customer relationship management, quality of relationship and customer lifetime value. The aim of the present study is to study customer and management relationship. Research method used for present study is a descriptive- correlative and structural equations model type. Population of study consists of customers of hotels in city of Ilam that is infinite number and among them 384 subjects selected based on Cochran formulae for infinite population through simple random sampling method. Data collecting tool was a standard questionnaire, whose reliability of 90% was obtained by Cronbach's alpha. Research findings in analyzing Lizrel software indicated that customer's relationship management has a significant effect on quality of relation and also quality of relation has effect on customer's lifetime value. And finally quality of relation has a significant effect of aspects of customer's lifecycle value (the level of applying services, loyalty, advertising, and tendency to refer).
Introduction Customer's relationship management as a new term is traced back to 90s. Customer's relationship management is regarded as a business policy for managing mutual relations with customers with the aim of optimizing the value and long-term satisfaction of customers (Bohling et al, 2006). The quality of relationship is considered as an important indicator for evaluating the power of relationship between provider (supplier) and customer. Many researchers believe that trust, satisfaction, and commitment of customer are considered as key factors for evaluating quality if relation. Crosby et al (1990) suggest that satisfaction and trust are key aspects of relation's quality. One of sub-factors and requirements in customer's relationship management is customer's lifecycle management. It can be defined as; cycles starting from managing customers' information to define customer's behaviors encompassing completely processes of a company from attracting customers to selling product/services and retain a long-term relationship (Bargar and Nasser, 1998). Of course, it must be noted that each customer has a unique value to the organization and customer's relationship management can contribute customers through categorizing them based on the level of value they may have to the organization (the value of customer's lifecycle). Respecting the importance of customer's relationship management and quality of relationships with it and also the level of value making by each customer during his lifecycle, it has been tried during present study to examine the relations between customer's relationship management (CRM), relationship quality (RQ) and customer's lifetime value (CLV) from customer's point of view in hotel industry.
Materials and Methods This study is regarded as an applied research in terms of purpose and in terms of data collecting it is a survey. It is accomplished according to analytical descriptive methods. Population of study consists of customers in hotels of Ilam with an infinite number, among which 348 subjects were selected using sampling formulae for infinite population with simple random sampling way. In order to collect data a questionnaire package including three standard questionnaires was applied. In order to analyze data, structural equations and Lisrel software were used. Discussion and Results Research hypotheses 1. Customer relationship management has a significant effect on quality of relationship in hotels. 2. Quality if relationship has a significant effect on customer's life cycle value in hotels.
Model at state of standard estimation
Figure.1: significance model of main hypothesis at state of standard estimation. Source: authors
Model at state of significance coefficients
Figure.2: significance model of main hypothesis at state of significance coefficients. Source: authors
As indicated by figures1 and 2, the level of effect for customer's relationship management on relationship quality among customers of hotels in Ilam is 70% and the level of its significance equals 5.06. The level of effect for relationship quality on customer's lifetime value among customers of hotels in Ilam is 75% and the level of its significance equals 4.77. Secondary hypotheses 1.2. Relationship quality has a significant effect on using services in hotels. 2.2. Relationship quality has a significant effect on loyalty in hotels. 3.2. Relationship quality has a significant effect on oral advertising in hotels. 4.2. Relationship quality has a significant effect on tendency to refer in hotel.
Model at state of standard estimation
Figure.3: significance model of main hypothesis at state of standard estimation. Source: authors
Model at state of significance coefficients
Figure.4: significance model of main hypothesis at state of significance coefficients. Source: authors
As shown in figures 3 and 4; the level of effect for relationship quality on the level of using services among customers on Ilam's hotels is 83% and the level of significance equals 5.89. The level of effect for relationship quality on the level of loyalty among customers on Ilam's hotels is 74% and the level of significance equals 6.35. The level of effect for relationship quality on the level of advertising among customers on Ilam's hotels is 60% and the level of significance equals 5.45 The level of effect for relationship quality on the level of tendency to refer among customers on Ilam's hotels is 57% and the level of significance equals 4.49.
Conclusion This article is has been done for study and explanation of correlation of variables such as customer's relationship management and value of customer life cycle and relation quality as moderating variable for this correlation in hoteling industry. After review the respected literature, using the field method and questionnaire tool data were gathered for determine the relations of variables and hypotheses of research were tested by Lisrel software. The result of first main hypothesis that is: customer's relationship management has a significant relation to relationship quality, respecting modeling structural equations, standard coefficient between two variables of CRM and RQ equals 0.70 that with t-5.06 (greater than 1.96) indicates that this hypothesis is approved. This finding is accordance to finding by Moslehi, et al (2014) and Verdgo and Verpermal (2009). The second main hypothesis.2 that is: RQ has a significant effect on CLV. Respecting results from structural equations modeling, standard coefficient between two variables of RQ and CLV equals 0.75, which with t-4.77 (greater than 1.96) indicates that this hypothesis is confirmed. This is accordance to findings by Mahdavi and Mousavi (2014), Barari and Ranjbarian (2011), and Verdgo and Verpermal (2009). Secondary hypotheses were tested too and the results were: Secondary hypotheisis.1: RQ has a significant effect on the level of using services. Respecting results by structural equations modeling, standard coefficient between two variables of RQ and the level of using services equals 0.83, which with t-5.89 (greater than 1.96) indicates that this hypothesis is confirmed. This finding is along to finding by Mousavi et al (2011), Vergo and Verpermal (2009). Secondary hypotheisis.2: RQ has a significant effect on the level of loyalty. Respecting results by structural equations modeling, standard coefficient between two variables of RQ and the level of loyalty equals 0.74, which with t-6.34 (greater than 1.96) indicates that this hypothesis is confirmed. This finding is along to finding by Barari and Ranjbarian (2011), Vergo and Verpermal (2009).Secondary hypotheisis.3: RQ has a significant effect on the level of advertising. Respecting results by structural equations modeling, standard coefficient between two variables of RQ and the level of advertising equals 0.60, which with t-5.45 (greater than 1.96) indicates that this hypothesis is confirmed. This finding is accordance with finding by researchers such as Barari and Ranjbarian(2011) and Vergo and Verpermal (2009). The hypothesis.4 that is the RQ has significant effect on on desire to return. Respecting results by structural equations modeling, standard coefficient between two variables of RQ and the level of advertising equals 0.57, which with t-4.49 (greater than 1.96) indicates that this hypothesis is confirmed. The result of this hypothesis is accordance with the findings of studies of Mousavi et al (2011), Barari and Ranjbarian (2011), Vergo and Verpermal (2009).
Keywords: Customer's Relationship Management (CRM), Relationship Quality (RQ), customer life cycle, hotels of Ilam
Bohling, T., Bowman, D., La Valle, S., Mittal, V., Narayandas, D., Ramanin, G. and Varadarajan, R. (2006). CRM implementation: Effectiveness issues and insights, Journal of Service Research, 9(2): 89-96. Bashri Mosavi, S. A. Afsar, M and Mahjobi fard, A. (2015). Analysis of customer value by using data mining and fuzziness hierarchy analysis, Management Researches in Iran, 19(1): 23-43. Baran, R.R. and Strunk, D.P. (2008). Principles of Customer Relationship Management, Australia: Thomson Southwest. 131-134. Baldinger, A.L. and Rubinson, J. (1996). Brand loyalty: The link between attitude and behavior, Journal of Advertising Research, 36: 22- 34. Berger, P.D. and Nasr, N.I. (1998). Customer lifetime value: Marketing models Applications, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 12: 17-30. Chris, R. (2002). Data Mining Techniques for Customer Relationship Management, Technology in Society. Crosby, L.A., Evans, K.R. and Cowles, D. (1990). Relationship quality in services selling: an interpersonal influence perspective, Journal of Marketing, 54(3): 68–82. Demirci Orel, F. and Kara, A. (2014).Supermarket self-checkout service quality customer satisfaction, and loyalty: Empirical evidence from an emerging market, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(2):118–129. Fjermestad, J. and Romano, N.C. (2003). Electronic Customer Relationship management-Revising the General Principles of Usability and Resistance - an Integrative Implementation Framework, Business Process Management Journal, 9(5): 572-591. Garbarino, E. and Johnson, M.S. (2009). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships, Journal of Marketing, 63: 70–87. Garbarino, E. and Johnson, M.S. (2009). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships, Journal of Marketing, 63: 70–87. Hennig-Thurau, T. and Klee, A. (1997). The role of dependence balancing in safeguarding transaction-specific assets in conventional channels: A critical reassessment and model development, Psychology and Marketing, 14(8): 737–764. Hennig-Thurau, T. (2004). Customer orientation of service employees Its impact on customer satisfaction, commitment and retention, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15: 460-478. Hughes, A. (2002). How Lifetime Value is Used to Evaluate Customer relationship Management, Database Marketing Institute, http://www.dbmarketing.com/articles/Art194.htm. Ihtiyar, A., Ahmad, F. and Mohd Osman, M.H. (2014). An integrated framework: Intercultural competence, service quality and customer satisfaction in Grocery retailing, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109: 492-496. Khaki, GH.R. (2010). The Method of Approach to the Dissertation, Tehran: Baztab. Kong Wing Chow, C. (2014). Customer satisfaction and service quality in the Chinese airline industry, Journal of Air Transport Management, 35: 102–107. Lee, Y., Park, K., Park, D., Lee, K. and Kwon, Y. (2005). The relative impact of service quality on service value customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in Korean family restaurant context, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 6: 27-50. Leu, H.D. and Hsieh, I.W. (2000). Relationships among customer satisfaction, brand equity and customer lifetime value, Chung Yuan Journal, 28(2): 31–41. Macintosh, G. (2007). Customer orientation, relationship quality, and relational benefits to the firm, Journal of Services Marketing, 21: 150-159. Moslehi, S.N., Kaffashpour, A. and Naji Azimi, Z. (2014). The use of model for segmenting customers based on value LRFM their life cycle, Journal of Public Administration, 25: 119-140. Mahdavi, A. and Mousavi, S.Z. (2013). Offering a framework for assessing long-term customer value in the process of customer relationship, Journal of Scientific Exploration of Business, 12: 1-17. Peppers, D. and Rogers, M. (1993). The One to one Future: Bulding Relationships on Customer at a Time Network. Currency/Doubleday Reichheld, F. and Sasser, W.E. (1990). Zero defections: quality comes to services, Harvard Business Review, 68: 105-111. Saifullah Hassan, R., Nawaz, A., Nawaz Lashari, M. and Zafar, F. (2015). Effect of customer relationship management on customer satisfaction, Procedia Economics and Finance, 23: 563 – 567. Sanchez-Garcia, J., Moliner-Tena, M.A., Callarisa-Fiol, L. and Rodriguez-Artola, R.M. (2007). Relationship quality of an establishment and perceived value of a purchase, The Service Industries Journal, 27(2):151–174. Safari Kahreh, M. Khodadad Houseni, S.H and Adel, A. (2013). Analyzing the long term value of customer for departmentalization and profitability management of customers in bans of Iran, Management Researches in Iran, 18(4): 88-110. Smith, J.B. (1998). Buyer-seller relationships: similarity, relationship management and quality, Psychology & Marketing, 15(1): 3–21. Sulaiman, M.A. Abdullah, M.A and Arifi Ridzuan, B. (2014). Customer relationship management (CRM) strategies practices in Malaysia retailers, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130: 354 – 361. Stone, B. and Jacob, R. (2002). Successful Direct Marketing Methods, McGraw Hill Publishing, Chicago: IL. Tohidi, H. and Jabbari, M.M. (2012). CRM as a marketing attitude based on customer’s information, Procedia Technology, 1: 565–569. Umamaheswari, J..L. (2014). Exploring internal service quality in a manufacturing organization – A study in Lucus TV Chennai, Procedia Economics and Finance, 11: 710–725. Verdugo, M. and Veerapermal, N. (2009). The employee-customer relationship quality Antecedents and on sequences in the hotel industry, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21: 251-274. Yaghubi, M., Rahi, F., Asgari, H. and Javadi, M. (2013). Customer relationship management model using structural equation modeling in hospitals of Isfahan medical university, Health Information Management, 7: 1051-1055. Zablah, A.R. Bellenger, D.N. and Johnston, W. J. (2004). An evaluation of divergent perspectives on customer relationship management: towards a common understanding of an emerging phenomenon, Industrial Marketing Management, 33(6): 475-89.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Customer's Relationship Management (CRM), Relationship Quality (RQ), customer life cycle, hotels of Ilam