3دانش آموحته کارشناسی ارشد مطالعات جوانان علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران
در عصر حاضر، گردشگری بیش از هر چیز نوعی مصرف محیط زیست تلقی میشود. با توجه به این که بخش قابل توجهای از این مصرف توسط گردشگران صورت میگیرد، میتوان گفت که گردشگران نقش حائز اهمیتی در توسعهی گردشگری پایدار و یا نابودی آن دارند. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی جامعهشناختی رفتار گردشگران نسبت به محیط زیست در پارک جنگلی نور میباشد. چارچوب نظری تحقیق را مدل چندگانه: مدل انگیزه، توانایی، فرصت و مدل رفتار محیط زیستی شکل داده است. تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از روش پیمایش انجام شده و جامعهی آماری آن را کلیه گردشگرانی را تشکیل میدهند که در مرداد سال 1393 از پارک جنگلی نور بازدید کردند. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از فرمول کوکران استفاده شده و با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری در دسترس، تعداد 300 پرسشنامه توسط گردشگران تکمیل گردید. دادههای جمع آوری شده با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SPSS پردازش و با استفاده از آمارههای توصیفی و تحلیلی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافتهها نشان داد که بین سن گردشگران، محل سکونت و رفتارهای محیط زیستی رابطه معناداری وجود ندارد. در مقابل، یافتههای تحقیق نشان داد که بین جنسیت و سطح تحصیلات و رفتارهای محیط زیستی رابطه مثبت وجود دارد. همچنین یافتهها نشان داد که در بین رفتارهای محیط زیستی گردشگران و متغیرهای مستقل(فشارهای هنجاری، فرصت، دانش محیط زیستی، ارزش زیست محیطی، پارادایم نوین بومشناختی، توانایی، انگیزه) رابطه معناداری وجود دارد.
A Sociological Explanation of Tourists’ Environmental Behavior (Case Study: Forest Park of Noor City)
Extended Abstract Introducation Sociologically, in a modern world, tourism seems a kind of consumption of environment. Obviously, a considerable part of this consumption is performed by tourists. Hence, tourists play important roles in the process of either development of sustainable tourism and or destruction of it. The tourism is a growing phenomenon and yet having positive and negative environmental effects on tourist areas. To reduce of negative effects of tourism, it is necessary to study environmental behaviors and its influencing fctors. Toursists are one of the main groups whose behavior may affect on the environment. Since uncontrolled extension of tourism industry may lead to harm the environment, it is execpted that local tourists to have environmental freinedly behavior which can prevent the occurrence of enironmnetal poblems. To study tourists’ behavior toward the environments (e.g, local park) will provide proper information for the policy makers to proptect the natural park. The purpose of this research is sociological analyzing of tourists behavior in the Forest Park of the Nour city, Mazandaran. The theoretical framework of this survey is based on multiple models (motivation, ability and opportunity model and environmental behavior model).
Materials and Methods To conduct this research, a survey method was used and its target group was composed of people who were visiting the paperk as tourists. The sample of the study was selected by applying convenience sampling method. In the primary stage, analyzing of the sample data comfirmed the validity and reliability of questions whereas the reliability coefficient was more than 0/72. Having collected the required data by utilizing questionnaire technich, all data were processed by using SPSS software and analyzed by applying descriptive as well as inferential statistics.
Discussion and results The results of the survey showed that there was a positive relationship between gender and environmental behavior whereas women have shown more responsible behavior than men. This result was compatible with the results the research conducted by Mehmet Oghlo (2010) an Minsa and De Mensa(2013). The reults of the study also showed that was not relationship between age and environmental behaviors. Age distribution howed that young vistors (at theeage of 15 to 30 year) have expressed more supportive haviours towars he environment compared with other old groups. The result also indicated that there was a clear relationship between education and environmental behaviors whereas tourists with ceriticate of diploma or higher education have expressed better environmental behaviors. This results is compatible with the results achieved by Clodina(2000) where he found a positive relationship between education and environmeal responsible behavior. Another results of the research can be mentioned as the research found a significant relationship between tourists’ environmental attitudes and environmental behaviors. Thi result is compatible with findings of some researchers like Salehi(2010), Stern(2005), karimzadeh(1389), Shahsaani and Abdollahi(1386). Furthermore, findings of this survey showed that there was significant relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. Queen et.al(2009) salehi(1389), both have reached the same results in their studies. In other words, the result of the current study is compatible with the results of the previous studies. The result of the study show that there was a significant relationship between opportunity and environmental behaviors. While some researchers like Salehi et al.91391) and Emamgholi(1390) have confirmed this type of hypothesi in their experimental stdies, other researcher like Jafarsalehi(1392), found an oppoite result. This means the results of the studies on the relationship between opportunity and environmental behavior still is inconsitence. Finally, the results of Regression Model showed that environmental value was the first variables entered in the model, while opportunity was the last one which was entered in the model. This indicates the different roles which these two viables can play in hapig tourists’ behavior in the studied area.
Conclusion The overall result of this study show that there different factors which are underpinning tourists’ behavior towards the environment. Even in a natural environment like forst part, there is no chance to introduce one factor as a determinat variable. However, among different surveyed factrs, the results show that values and new environmental attitudes are playing importnatnt roles in determining viitors behavior. Values are forming a basement for people behavior and this means that with changing people values, we can ecxpect visitors behavior will change towards environmnally sustainable bahviour. More importantly, values can play significant role to change vistors’ attitudes towards the environment. It means, when people hold enviromnetal values, there is very likely that they will show environmental friendly behavior. These results suggested that policy makers should focus on tourists’ values if they want to have their support to protect the environment. With considering vistors’ values and attitudes towards the nevironmnet, it is very hard to imagine any proper policy to get supported by toursist. Policy makers like thoese palnners who are working in municipalities can provide supportive opportunities in forest parks to reduce possible environmental problems by educating toursist through new values as Dunlpa calls “new Environmnetal paradigm”.
Keywords: Environmental Behavior, Tourists, New Environmental Paradigm, Environmental Knowledge, Normative Pressures, Opportunity, Forest Park of the City of Noor
Arcury, A.T. (1990). Environmental attitude and environmental knowledge, Human Organization, 49: 300-304. Aghili, S.M., Khoshfar, G.R. and Salehi, S. (2009). Social capital and responsible environmental behaviors in North’ Iran (Case study: Provinces of mazandaran, Gillan and Golestan), Journal of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, 16: 1-16. (In Persian). Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change,Psychological Review, 84(2): 191–215. -Barr,S., Ford, N.J. and Gilg, A.W. (2003). Attitudes toward Recycling Household Waste in Exeter, Devon: Quantitative & Qualitative, 3-4. Corraliza, J., Berenguer, A., Jaiene. (2000). Environmental values, beliefs and actions (A situational approach), Environment and Behavior, 23: 832-848. Dietz, T., Fitzgerald, A. and Shwam, R. (2005). Environmental values, Annual Review Environmental Research, 30: 335-372. Dunlap, R.E. and Michelson, W. (2002). Hand Book of Environmental Sociology, New York: Greenwood Press. Ebrahimzade, E., Kazemi, S. and Eskandari Sani, M. (2012). The strategic planning of development of tourism sophisticated on religious tourism (Case study: Qom city), Resaerches of Human Gheography, 76: 115-141. (In Persian) Hall, P., Edition. Stephan F. (1994). Witt and Luie Management Handbook, Second. Holjevac, A.I. (2003). A Vision of tourism and the hotel industry in the 21st century, Hospitality Management, 22(2): 129-134. Heydari, R., Safarpour, M. and Azari, M. (2012). The analysis of behavioral pattern’ tourists in access to urban attributions using GIS, (Case study: Shiraz city), Journal of Urban Research and Planning, 4(12): 1-22. (In Persian) Hagighatian, M., Pourafkari, N. and Jafarinia, G.R. (2011). The effect of social –environmental behaviors on social development (Case study: Staff’ South Pars, asslviae), Journal of Studies of Iran’ Social Development, 5(1): 135-152. (In Persian) JafarSalehi, S. (2012). Gap of Environmental Attitude, Knowledge and Behavior’ Tourists, mater thesis, Supervisior: Mohammad Fazeli, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Mazandaran University. (In Persian) Khani, F., Ghasemi, A., Jhani, S. and Ghanbari nasab, A. (2009). Analysis of effects of coastal tourism based on survey of rural households, (Case study: Chamkhale village, Langroud city), Journal of human Gheography, 1(4): 51-64. (In Persian) Karimzadeh, S. (2010). Analysis of Social factors Influencing on Environmental Behaviors (Energy Consumption), Master thesis, Supervisor: Sadegh Salehi, Payam Noor University, Tehran. (In Persian) Kollmuss, A. and Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to proenvironmental behavior?, Environmental Education Research, 8(3): 239-260. Mensah, I. and Dei Mensah, R. (2013). International Tourists’ Environmental Attitude towards Hotels in Accra, Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(5): 444-455. Pietikäinen, J. (2007). Slow Start at The Beginning of The Recycling Chain – How to Make Consumers Recycle Their Mobile Phones?, Master’s Thesis, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences. Puhakka, R. (2010). Nature Tourists’ Concern for the Environment and Response to Ecolabels in Oulanka National Park, Nordia Geographical Publications. Salehi, S. (2008). A Study of Factors Underpinning Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours, Phd.The University of Leeds. Salehi, S. (2010). Environmental behaviors, Environmental knowledge and Education, Journal of Ethics Sciences, 6(3-4): 201-220. (In Persian) Salehi, S., Ghadami, M., and Hemmati Goyemi, Z. (2012). Analysis of Environmental behaviors between coastal tourists (Case study: The coastal tourists‘Bushehr city in Nouruz days), Journal of Planning and Development of Tourism, 1(3): 35-58 (in Persian) Salehi, S., Pazukinejad, Z. and Emam Gholi, L. (2012). Education & Environment (Environmental attitude, awareness and behaviors’ students), Journal of Ethics Sciences, 6(2): 171-190. (In Persian) Salehi, S. and Ghemi Asl, Z. (2012). Analysis of environmental education & Environmental pro behaviors (Case study: Students of girl high school of Babol city), Education of Environment & Sustainable Development, 1(3): 67-79. (In Persian) Stern, P.C. (2000). Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behavior,Journal of Social Issues, 56(3): 407–424. UNWTO. (2007). Tourism Highlights, 2007 Edition, Available in www.unwto.com. Zahedi, Sh. (2006). Introduction on Tourism and Ecotourism; with Emphasis on Environment, Tehran: Publications of Allame Tabatabayi University. (In persian)
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Environmental behavior, Tourists, New Environmental Paradigm, Environmental Knowledge, Normative Pressures, Opportunity, Forest Park of the City of Noor