گردشگری در آرامستانها، یکی از اشکال خاص و خرد از گردشگری فرهنگی بوده و بنابر مکان مورد بازدید و یا انگیزهی گردشگر میتواند با اشکال دیگری از گردشگری نظیر گردشگری جنگ، شجرهنامه، حزن و اندوه، و در مواردی خاص مانند تختفولاد، گردشگری مذهبی و معنوی همپوشانی داشته باشد. این آرامستان، به عنوان یکی از قدیمیترین و مقدسترین آرامستانهای اصفهان و جهان اسلام، قابلیتهای زیادی در حوزهی گردشگری دارد؛ از جمله میتوان به فضای معنوی و کثرت مشاهیر مدفون در آن، تاریخی بودن و قدمت مکان، مکانی برای یافتن ریشهها، مکانی برای انجام مطالعات تاریخی، فرهنگی، هنری و جامعهشناختی، تنوع سبکهای معماری آرامگاهی و وجود سایر اشکال هنری مانند خط، نقاشی، حجاری و ... اشاره کرد. این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی مخاطبان بالقوه و بالفعل مجموعه و نیز طراحی سناریوهای احتمالی به منظور توسعهی گردشگری در آن و انتخاب برترین سناریو برای دستیابی به این مهم انجام پذیرفته است. این پژوهش علاوه بر مطالعات اسنادی، از مطالعات میدانی با کمک مشاهده، مصاحبه با کارشناسان و خبرگان مرتبط و نیز تکمیل پرسشنامه نزد گردشگران بالقوه و بالفعل مجموعه و گروه خبرگان بهره برده است. مطالعهی وضع موجود به طراحی چهار سناریو در طول پژوهش منجر گردید: سناریوی اول: ادامهی رویهی فعلی، سناریوی دوم: تاکید بر توسعه و بهبود زیرساختهای فیزیکی و انسانی، سناریوی سوم: تاکید بر توسعهی و بهبود برنامههای بازاریابی با تاکید بر انتخاب بازار هدف و جذب گردشگر، و سناریوی چهارم: تعریف فعالیتهای جدید و ایجاد تنوع در عرضه مجموعه به گردشگران. در نهایت، گرچه از نظر خبرگان هر چهار سناریو حائز اهمیت است اما سناریوی دوم به عنوان سناریوی برتر انتخاب و راهکارهای مناسب جهت توسعهی گردشگری در مجموعه تاریخی، فرهنگی و مذهبی تختفولاد پیشنهاد شده است.
Planning and Development of Tourism in the Historical, Cultural and Religious Cemetery of Takht-e-Foulad
Extended Abstract Cemetery tourism is a micro niche market of cultural tourism and through location and/or tourist motivation may have overlaps with other forms of tourism such as war, genealogy/legacy, thanatourism, and in certain cases such as Takht-e- Foulad, religious and spiritual tourism. Takht-e- Foulad as one of the oldest and most sacred cemeteries and the Islamic World, has great potential in the field of tourism; such as spiritual space and the multiplicity of celebrities buried in it, historic and ancientness of site, a place to find roots, place for historical, cultural, artistic and sociological studies, variety of architectural styles of mausoleum and other forms of art, such as calligraphy, painting, carvings and etc. This main object of the research is to identifying actual and potential visitor of site, designing possible scenarios for the development of tourism in Takht-e- Foulad and introducing the best scenario to develop tourism there. Using attributive and field studies such as observation, interviews with experts, potential and actual visitors and tourists led to the design of the four scenarios at the research process; is as follows: First scenario: continuation of current practices. Second scenario: the emphasis on the development and improvement of physical infrastructure and human resources.
Third scenario: the emphasis on the development and improvement of marketing programs with emphasis on the selection of target markets and attracting tourists. Fourth scenario: defining the new activities in order to offer site to tourists. Finally, although the opinions of experts all four scenarios is important, but the second scenario, as the best scenario chosen and suggested appropriate strategies for the development of tourism in the history, cultural and religious cemetery of Takht- e- Foulad.
Introduction Cemetery tourism is micro niche market of cultural tourism that starts since early 1990s in Per- Lachaise, Paris. The historical cemeteries have so many potentials in tourism, such as spiritual space, the multiplicity of celebrities buried in it, historic and ancientness of site, a place to find Genealogy, a place for historical, cultural, artistic and sociological studies, variety of architectural styles of mausoleum and other different forms of art (such as calligraphy, painting, carvings ,etc). Iran has many historical cemeteries that can be considered as one of the attractions in tourist destinations. Tanas (2013: 22) believes that” Death is a cultural asset commonly found in contemporary cognitive tourism. The changing character of tourism consumption leads to the discovery of new tourism spaces, often long familiar, but relatively poorly documented and studied”. Therefore, death and all things that related to it can be considered as an attraction for tourists. On other hand, cemeteries are part of the city context that in addition to the roles and aesthetic, environmental, historical and educational features; are social role in the life of yesterday and today.
Materials and Methods The literature review shows that cemetery tourism is a micro niche tourism of cultural tourism (Powers Douglas 2005: 20), and generally recognized as a subset of dark tourism (Rojek, 1993), that it overlaps with thanatourism by the focusing on the "death". Also, cemetery tourism has many similarities with other forms of tourism, including genealogy/ legacy tourism (Ray & McCain, 2003, 2012), war tourism (winter, 2011: 463), and in certain cases; depending on the cemetery of the case study; religious tourism, spiritual tourism and historical tourism. For example, Cemetery of "Arlington" in the United States, Beskid Niski war cemeteries in Poland and other cemeteries that remaining of the world war II, after Per- Lachaise are important attractions for tourists. Dark tourism includes all issues referring to the origins and consequences of tourism connected with death and cruelty, involving trips to disaster areas and sites of mass death, genocide or murder (Lennon & Foley 2000, Stone 2006). Thanatourism (Seaton 1996, 2002, Dann & Seaton 2001) is treated as a subtype of dark tourism where death is the object of interest and derives from thanatopsis - death contemplation. Thus, thanatourism should be considered from the following perspectives: •• the personal qualities and achievements of the dead person or persons; •• the character, history and interpretation of the event or site connected with death; •• motivations and needs (education, homage, adventure, excitement, entertainment), effects (psychological, social, economic) (Tanas, 2013: 23).legacy tourism is one of the emerging form in heritage tourism (Ray & McCain, 2001: 340). Spiritual tourism providing as a phenomenon in the travel and tourism industry and it is defined a self-improvement project to improve the spirituality (Norman, 2012: 20). One of the main motivations of visitors to the spiritual space has been in Takht- e- Foulad, so it can be one of the most important forms of tourism in Isfahan, Iran, especially with the motivation of religious tourism and pilgrimage. Takht- e- Foulad is the greatest and holiest cemetery in Shiism world after “Vadiolsalam” in Najaf that the tomb of many of the famous men, jurisprudents, philosophers, Gnostics, martyrs, literary men and artists exist there. Takht- e- Foulad has a collection of the most beautiful architectural structures for the tombs, mosques, cisterns, etc. the finest samples of calligraphy, stonecutting, etc. This study aimed to introduce the phenomenon of cemetery tourism by review on the literature. In this study, 3 questionnaires utilized. Purpose of first questionnaire is to ask tourists and visitors of Isfahan about visiting Takht- e- Foulad. The goal of the second questionnaire is to identify, classify and evaluation of the opinions of the de facto tourists and visitors of Takht- e- Foulad. Finally, according to the results of questionnaires and the scenarios and strategies that had been proposed, the third questionnaire was designed to assess the views of experts to select the best scenario.
Discussion and Results Review results shows that 60.2% visitors and tourists of Isfahan do not know Takht- e- Foulad, while about 85 % of tourists can be targeted as the potential market for Takht- e- Foulad. The second survey results shows that for development of tourism in Takht- e- Foulad, requiring the development of tourism infrastructure (such as database for tourists and visitors), the development of promotional and marketing tools and development of activities which are attract for tourists. So, four scenarios were defined for development of tourism in Takht- e- Foulad.
Conclusion With respect to the views of experts, Takht- e- Foulad managers should consider the following in order of importance:
Change of Takht- e- Foulad from a tourism source to tourist attraction, with emphasis on the improvement and development of human resources and physical infrastructure required for the development of tourism. Marketing actions and extensive research and right policies to select the appropriate target market by taking a combination of both internal and external tourism market. Current partially effective measures that should be a stronger and more efficient. Define new activities for groups with special interests who ordered it.
Keywords: Historical Tourism, Religious Tourism, Cemetery Tourism, Takht- e- Foulad.
Brennan, M. (2014). The A-Z of Dying Social, Medical and Cultural Aspects, California: Greenwood. Cohen, E. (1996). A phenomenology of tourist experiences, Apostolopoulos. Y, Leivadi. S., Yiannakis. A. (Eds.), The Sociology of Tourism: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, London: Routledge. Cohen, E.H. (2006). Religious tourism as an educational experience, Timothy. D.J., Olsen. D.H. (Eds.), Tourism, Religion and Spiritual Journeys(78-93), New York: Routledge. Dann, G.M.S., Seaton A.V. (2001). Slavery, Contested Heritage and Thanatourism, New York: Haworth Hospitality Press. Davies, D. (2013, November). How do you introduce public events that will boost your bottom line and protect your cemetery in the future?, American Cemetery, 20-26. Haq. F. and Jackson. J. (2006). Exploring consumer segments and typologies of relevance to spiritual tourism, Proceedings of the Australia and New Zealand Academy of Marketing Conference, Queensland University of Technology. Brisbane, Australia. Haq. F, Wong. H.Y. and Jackson, J. (2008). Applying Ansoff’s growth strategy matrix to Consumer Segments and Typologies in Spiritual Tourism., Conference Paper, Melbourne: World Business Institute, Australia, Retrieved from http://hdl.cqu.edu.au/10018/20142. Haghir, S. and Shonhanizad, Y. (2011). How to promote the cemetery in social and cultural aspects of urban sustainable development in Iran, Bagh Nazar, 17(8): 81–94. (In Persian) Lennon, J. and Foley, M. (2000). Dark Tourism: The Attraction of Death and Distaste, London: Thomson. Norman. A. (2012). The varieties of the spiritual tourist experience, Literature & Aesthetics, 22 (1): 20-37. Moosavian. M. (2011). Space design of social networking in connection with the soft war, Studies of Soft Power, 1(1): 161-185. (In Persian) Nilforooshan, M. (2005). Clean Soil: The Introduction Of Takht- e- Foulad, Goldaste. (In Persian) Pecseka, B. (2015). City cemeteries as cultural attractions: Towards an understanding of foreign visitors’ attitude at the national Graveyard in Budapest, The Central European Journal of Regional Development and Tourism, 7(1): 44-61. Ray, N. M. and McCain, G. (2003). Legacy tourism: the search for personal meaning in heritage travel, Tourism Management, 24: 713–717. Robinson, M. and Novelli, M. (2005). Niche Tourism: Contemporary, Hussies, Trends and Cases, UK: Oxford Rojek, C. (1993). Ways of Escape: Modern Transformations in Leisure and Travel, London: Macmillan. Rojek, C. (1997). Indexing, Dragging and the Social Construction of Tourist Sights, London: Rutledge. Saeidian Jazee, M. (2006). A Study about the name and naming the -based on inscriptions of Fazelan shrine in Takht- e- Foulad, Isfahan Culture, 31: 63 - 78. (In Persian) Seaton, A.V. (1996). Guided by the Dark: From Thanatopsis to Thanatourism, Chichester: john Wiley & Sons. Seaton A.V. (2002). Thanatourism’s final frontiers? Visits to cemeteries, churchyards and funerary sites as sacred and secular pilgrimage, TourismRecreationResearch, 27(2): 73–82. Smith, M, Macleod. N. and Robertson, H.M. (2012). The Key Concepts in Tourist Studies (J. Bapiri, Trans), Tehran: Mahkame. (In Persian) Stone, P. (2005). Dark tourism consumption, Tourism Research, 3(5): 109–117. Retrieved from http://ertr.tamu.edu. Tanas, S. (2004). The cemetery as a part of the geography of tourism, Tourism, 14(2): 71-87. Tanas, S. (2013). Tourism death space and than tourism in Poland, Current Issues of Tourism Research, 1: 22-27. Tunbridge, J.E. and Ashworth, G.J. (1996). Dissonant Heritage: The management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict, London: John Wiley & Sons. Venbrux, E. (2010). Cemetery tourism: coming to terms with death? La Rcierca Folklorica, Indigenous tourism, Performance, and Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Pacific, 61: 41-49. Vahidzadegan, F. (2012). The Design Environment And A Brown Field In The Historical Context Based On The Pattern Of The Garden, (Master dissertation), Tehran University. (In Persian) Winter, C. (2011). First World War cemetery: Insights from Visitor Books, TourismGeographies, 13 (3): 462-479.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Historical Tourism, Religious Tourism, Cemetery Tourism, Takht- e- Foulad