1استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری دانشگاه مازندران
2دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اکوتوریسم، دانشگاه مازندران
با توجه به آنکه نقش ساکنین محلی در تصمیم گیریهای مربوط به توسعهی گردشگری کلیدی است. از این رو قدرت تأثیر گذار ساکنین و تبلور آن به صورت همکاری و استقبال از گردشگران، در جهت موفقیت و پایداری توسعهی گردشگری امری ضروری است. هدف این تحقیق، شناخت میزان حمایت ساکنان روستاهای مناطق جنگلی دهستان سجادرود از توسعهی گردشگری و تبیین عوامل موثر بر سطح حمایت است. این تحقیق به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ روش، توصیفی- تحلیلی مبتنی بر پیمایش است. دادههای مربوط به هر یک از متغیرها از طریق پرسشنامه و مصاحبه، جمع آوری شده است. جامعهی آماری این تحقیق، 1885 سرپرست خانوار میباشد و از این تعداد، 250 نفر از سرپرستان خانوارها به عنوان جامعهی نمونه در نظرگرفته شدند. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روشهای آماری توصیفی و آزمونهای آماری استنباطی از قبیل آزمون همبستگی پیرسون، کرامر و اسپیرمن و مدل رگرسیون گام به گام استفاده شد. نتایج نشان میدهد ساکنین روستاهای مناطق جنگلی در حد بالایی از توسعهی گردشگری حمایت میکنند. در این رابطه سطح حمایت ساکنین از توسعهی گردشگری با متغیرهای نظیر سن و نوع شغل رابطه معناداری دارد. علاوه برآن، نگرش ساکنین از اثرات و پیامدهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی تاثیر مستقیم (مثبت) و معنادار و نگرش ساکنین از اثرات و پیامدهای زیست محیطی تاثیر معکوس (منفی) و معنادار برسطح حمایت نسبت به توسعهی گردشگری در روستاهای مناطق جنگلی داشته است. همچنین در بین مولفهها، بیشترین تاثیر برحمایت ساکنین، مربوط به نگرش ساکنین از اثرات و پیامدهای اقتصادی بوده است.
Assessment of Rural Residents’ Support for Tourism Development in the Villages of Forest Regions and Their Effective Factors
Extended Abstract The role of local residents in decision-making for tourism development is crucial so that, towards a successful and sustainable tourism, the influence of residents and its effect as reception and cooperation with tourists becomes essential. The goal of this paper is to provide some knowledge about the support level of rural residents living in the villages of forest regions in Sajadrood Rural District for the development of tourism, as well as determining factors affecting the level of support. The present research is of practical type and employs a descriptive-analytical method based on the survey. Also, the data for each variable were collected through questionnaires and interviews. In this research, the statistical population is 1885 heads of households. Out of which, 250 heads of households are considered as the sample society. In order to analyze the data, we used descriptive statistical methods and inferential statistical tests such as Pearson and Cramer correlation tests and stepwise regression models. Results obtained offer the support level of rural residents living in the villages of forest regions for tourism development to be high, where there found to be a meaningful relationship between the support level of residents for tourism development and variables such as age, education levels and jobs. Moreover, the residents’ attitudes to social and economic impacts and outcomes have a meaningful and direct (positive) effect, and their attitude to environmental impacts and outcomes have a meaningful and inverse (negative) effect on the level of support for tourism development in the villages of forest regions. Amongst the variables, furthermore, the most influence over the residents’ support is related to the residents’ attitudes to economic impacts and outcomes.
Introduction Forest areas as fragile and vulnerable ecosystem with a lot of tourism attractions to develop ecotourism and as territory for local small communities living in some areas of the world are very important. So management and planning of tourism development based on local community in these areas is essential for successful development of tourism. Previous studies demonstrate, when can benefited from local community potential support, that their attitudes toward to tourism impacts is positive. In this regard understand and even predicting attitude of residents from tourism development and factors that can influence their reactions is essential to achieving resident’s protection to tourism development. Therefore, considering the importance of resident’s protection level from tourism development, the research tries to investigation this issue as a case study in forest rural of Sajadrood district. In this regard the research question as follows: what level of resident’s protection forest areas from tourism development and influence of which factors.
Materials and Methods The purpose of this study recognition amount of support and welcomed residents from tourism development in forest area rural and investigation influence factors. Data related to each of research variables have been collected by questionnaires and interviews and questions are designed in the form of liker scale. In this study headed households are unit of analysis, to complete questionnaires among of heads of households was done sampling. According to Cochran sampling method sample size 250 persons calculated. For measuring reliability used Cornbrash’s alpha coefficient that is equal 0.85 and represents that it acceptable. In order to analysis of data used the statistical methods - descriptive statistics and dedicational statistical tests- in spss software.
Discussion and Results Totally, according to survey study attitude residents relative to the general effects of tourism development and benefits and costs is positive. Because have believed more than 80 percent of residents interests and benefits from the tourism development is more from costs and negative consequences, and in other hand residents general effects and consequences of tourism development with the average rating of 3.45 is considered desirable. Generally, residents dispersed forest rural in area, support the tourism development in high level, the average rating of 3.74 reflects of this claim. But the levels of resident’s protection are different in terms of some demographic characteristics. In addition to relationship between demographic characteristics respondent with amount of tourism development support in study area, how attitude of host society relative to the economic, social and environmental impacts on dependent variable - host community support – used the multivariate linear regression model to stepwise method. Generally correlation coefficient between all independent variables with amount of support as a dependent variable equal to 0.41 and alpha value less than 0.001 that represents significant. On the other hand considering amount of coefficient of determination for this model (17%) that means 17% of dependent variable changes, explained by independent variables -namely attitude of residents relative to economic, social and environment effects.
Conclusion The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between some of demographic characteristics and support of tourism development. In this context and with the results achieved by Haralambopoulas and pizam (1996) as well as Weaver and Lawton (2001) show that young people are more supportive of tourism development. The results' absence of significant relationship between gender and education level with amount of tourism development support the findings of Pizam (1978), Mason and Cheyne (2000) about relationship significant between gender and protection and findings cores (1998), tee, Sonemez and Cirakaya (2002) about relationship between education and support is conflict. Well as there is a significant relationship between attitudes of residents to the tourism effects and support it. Using regression model it was found economic effects and thereafter social – cultural impacts in order have the most positive and direct influence supporting host community of tourism development and opposite environmental effects was negation and reciprocal. In understood effects (economic, social-cultural and environmental) on supporting with findings Jurowski et al (1997), Perdue et al (1997) and Boley et al (2014) aligned. Totally, given that residents Interests and benefits of tourism development have understood more of its cost therefore, despite resident’s awareness from negative and consequences environmental effects and serious concerns residents in this context Support from tourism development in the area.
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