1کارشناس ارشد مدیریت جهانگردی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی
2دانشیار گروه مدیریت جهانگردی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی
گردشگری فیلم از دهه 1990 مورد توجه قرار گرفته است و برخی کشورها فعالانه در ترویج آن تلاش کردهاند. هدف این مقاله اولویتبندی فعالیتهای بازاریابی گردشگری فیلم است. بدین منظور از مدل فرصتهای بازاریابی گردشگری فیلم هادسون و ریچی استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش که از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی ـ پیمایشی است جامعۀ آماری تهیهکنندگان فیلم و سریال شهر تهران و ابزار سنجش، پرسشنامه است که به روش نمونهگیری قضاوتی و گلوله برفی توزیع شده است. از ۸۰ پرسشنامه توزیع شده، ۴۷ عدد مؤثر بوده است؛ دادهها با نرم افزار SPSS تحلیل شده است. طبق نتایج آزمون تی تک گروهی، همه مولفهها از سطح اهمیت بسیار زیادی برخوردارند و نتیجه اولویتبندی مولفهها با استفاده از آزمون فریدمن حاکی از آن است که استفاده کردن از تأثیر فیلم اولویت نخست را داراست. اطلاع رسانی به عموم با استفاده از رسانه، تشویق استودیوها/شرکتهای فیلمسازی برای ساختن فیلم در لوکیشن، و ترویج لوکیشن فیلم به ترتیب در اولویتهای بعدی هستند. شاخصهای هر یک از این مولفهها نیز اولویتبندی شده است.
Extended Abstract Since 1990, film tourism has become more noticeable and discussed and some countries have started to promote it more actively. The purpose of this research is to identify and prioritize film tourism marketing activities in Iran. For this purpose, film tourism marketing activities were discussed in previous research literature. Hudson and Ritchie (2006) created a film tourism marketing opportunities model that formed the basis for later research. In this study, this is the type of applied, descriptive-survey research incorporated, which producers of films and TV series in Tehran used for statistical population and assessment. In order to obtain this information, the researcher created a questionnaire, which, by using judgmental and Snowball sampling method, was distributed and completed. 80 questionnaires were distributed and 47 effective questionnaires were collected. The data was analyzed with SPSS software and research findings discovered, according to the results of one-sample T test, all indicators are very important. The result of the Friedman test prioritization criteria is as follows: leveraging the film, generating media publicity, encouraging studios to film in location, and promoting film locations. Finally, components of each of the indicators are prioritized and based on the findings and, in order to promote film tourism in the country, necessary proposals are presented.
Introduction The influence of films on consumers' lives has led to tourism destination selection. According to Butler (1990), people often choose their tourist destination depending on what they have seen at popular audiovisual means. Spectators, therefore, become strongly motivated to visit cinematic locations. Films create images for represented places; these images survive for decades and create an identity for the destination. All countries try to promote their tourist products by using various marketing techniques. It seems that, while traditional advertising techniques have realized diminishing effectiveness, communication, via product placement, is better targeted, more sophisticated and more widely received) Vagionis and Loumioti, 2011). In a survey conducted with 140 destination-marketing organizations around the world, Hudson and Ritchie (2006) found that 96% of respondents admitted that they should be more active in drawing on tourism-inducing film production (Rosch, 2010:224). Nevertheless, due to the prevalence of English films, there is a shortage of research concerning films shot in non-Western settings and not in the English language. The literature also revealed that there is a deficiency of information and studies on the issue of film-induced tourism in the Middle East (Soliman, 2011). Since film tourism is a new concept in Iran's tourism industry, this article seeks to provide guidelines for film tourism marketing opportunities in the country.
Materials and Methods This is an applied, descriptive-survey study from the research method perspective. Data is gathered through secondary and primary sources. The assessment tool is a questionnaire, which is designed based on the Hudson and Ritchie (2006) film tourism marketing opportunities model. The questionnaire is divided into two sections. The first part includes questions regarding the following areas: 1) gender 2) age 3) experience in the film industry 4) making or not making a film intended to introduce a tourist attraction, and 5) familiarity with film tourism. The second part asks respondents to indicate on a Likert-type scale of 1 to 5 how important each of the 31 marketing activities is for generating film tourism. The designed questionnaire is delivered to the professors of the field of tourism and its validity is verified. The questionnaires were distributed in April, May and June 2012. Producers of film and television series in Tehran form the statistical population. 80 questionnaires using judgmental and snowball sampling were distributed and 47 effective questionnaires were collected.
Discussion and results SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was used for the statistical analysis. After testing the questionnaire, the overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.93. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test for normality showed that the distribution was normal. Appropriate analysis was made by utilizing one sample T-test and Friedman.
Table (1): One-Sample Test
Test Value = 3
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Generating media publicity
Leveraging the film
Encouraging studios to film in location
Promoting film locations
Factor 1: Leveraging the film
Produce a “Making of the Film” feature
Engage the film’s stars to promote the film location
Attract media attention at each release window
Engage in promotional activity with film companies
Host events that continue the pull of the film
Plan activities to promote other tourism sectors
Replicate or maintain film icons/sites/scenes/sets
Post signage and interpretation at the location
Sell film memorabilia
Sponsor the film directly
Factor 2:Generating media publicity
Ensure media coverage mentions film location
Maximize the impacts of postproduction exposure
Assess a film’s merit in terms of its promotional value
Provide images for media or tour operators
Invite travel media to film location
Negotiate end credits for the destination
Create links to destination on the film Website
Invite travel media to special release of the film
Factor 3:Encouraging studios to film in location
Be actively involved in location scouting
Appoint an executive or PR specialist
Actively promote the destination to film studios
Offer grants and tax credits
Factor 4:Promoting film locations
Engage in joint promotions with tour operators
Create exhibits or displays of film memorabilia
Post links on Website to film tours
Develop a dedicated Website for potential tourists
Promote hotels and guest houses used in films
Produce film and site maps for tourists
Package attractions to lengthen tourist stay
Have guided tours and/or film walks
Work with other organizations to promote locations
Table (2): Results of Friedman Test
Conclusion In this research, film producers care a lot about all the marketing activities. Therefore, it can be stated that the two main groups of film tourism stakeholders (film industry in this research and DMOs in Hudson and Ritchie (2006) study) have confirmed the importance of the all film tourism marketing activities. Due to the prioritization of these two groups of film tourism, the idea of Heitmann (2010) was confirmed. For the film producer, because of the use of leveraging, the film is the most important factor, and they care about promoting the film that is their main concern. However, in terms of DMOs of Hudson and Ritchie, research promoting film locations was the most important factor. Therefore, it is recommended that the activists in the tourism industry make activists in film industry sure about the common cooperation and the success of the film and its economy. Also, it is necessary during the film-making process to clear all copyright laws and for the tourism stakeholders and the film company to negotiate about that from early on. Activists in the tourism industry should have a lawyer specialized in media law to observe the copyright laws and logical affaires related to film properties before spending any funds on film tourism promotion materials.
Keywords: Marketing, Film, Film and TV Series Producers, Film Tourism
Azad Armaki, T. (2000). The T.V. in Iran: An instrument for development or a symbol-maker, Nameye Olum-e- Ejtema'i, 14: 3-20. Beeton, S. (2005). Film-Induced Tourism, Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Busby, G. and Klug, J. (2001). Movie-induced tourism: The challenge of measurement and other issues, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(4): 316-332. Hahm, J. and Wang, Y. (2011). Film-induced tourism as a vehicle for destination marketing: Is it worth the efforts? Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 28:165–179. Heitmann, S. (2010). Film tourism planning and development–Questioning the role of stakeholders and sustainability, Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(1): 31-46. Hudson, S. and Ritchie, J.R. (2006). Promoting destinations via film tourism: an empirical identification of supporting marketing initiatives. Journal of Travel Research, 44(4): 387-396. Kim, S. (2011). Audience involvement and film tourism experiences: Emotional places, emotional experiences, Tourism Management, xxx(11): 1-10. Macionis, N. (2004). Understanding the film-induced tourist. In: Frost W, Croy, G. and Beeton, S. (eds) International Tourism and Media Conference Proceedings, 24th–26th November 2004. Melbourne: Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, 86–97. Macionis, N. (2007). Film-Induced Tourism: The Role of Film As a Contributor to the Motivation to Travel to a Destination, Doctoral thesis, Griffith University. Macionis, N. and Oconnor, J. (2011). How can the film-induced tourism phenomenon be sustainably managed? Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 3(2): 173-178. O'Connor, N. (2010). A Film Marketing Action Plan (FMAP) for Film Induced Tourism Destinations, Doctoral thesis, Dublin Institute of Technology. Οlsberg – SPI. (2007). Stately Attraction – How Film and Television Programmes Promote Tourism in the UK. Final report to UK Film Council, Scottish Screen, EM Media, East Midlands Tourism, Screen East, South West Screen, Film London and Visit London. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ukfilmcouncil.co.uk/media/pdf/a/6/FinalـStatelyـAttractionـReportـtoـUKFCـandـPartnersـ20.08.07.pdf. Rezaqulizadeh, B. (2011). A review of media impact on tourism, Communication Research, 17(4): 159-185. Roesch, S. (2010). The Experiences of Film Location Tourists, Bristol: Channel View Publications. Sadafi, Z. and Babaie, S. (2009). Mass media: Symbol of global village, Name Pejouhesh Farhangi, 9(4): 95-132. Saltik, I.A., Cosar, Y. and Kozak, M. (2011). Film-induced tourism: Benefits and challenges for destination marketing, European Journal of Tourism Research, 4(1): 44-54. Sellgren, E. (2010). Film-Induced Tourism: The Effect Films Have on Destination Image Formation, Motivation and Travel Behavior, MSc thesis, Copenhagen Business School. Smith, M. Maleod, N. and Robertson, M.H. (2010). Key Concepts in Tourism Studies, Los Angeles: Sage. Soliman, D.M. (2011). Exploring the role of film in promoting domestic tourism: A case study of Al Fayoum, Egypt, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 17(3): 225-235. Vagionis, N. and Loumioti, M. (2011). Movies as a tool of modern tourist marketing, Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 6(2): 353-362. Vosoghi, L. (2010). Dark tourism (With focus on war tourism), Tourism Management Quarterly Journal, 10(3): 105-127.