پژوهش حاضر در صدد بررسی این موضوع است که آیا گروه های مختلف شغلی- تحصیلی شاغل در حوزه سلامت و درمان به دلیل بهره مندی افتراقی از انواع سرمایه، دارای ذائقه های فراغتی متفاوتی هستند یا خیر؟ و دیگر اینکه آیا تمایل به گردشگری در بین گروه های شغلی مختلف حوزه سلامت و درمان دارای تفاوت معنی داری است یا خیر؟ مدل نظری پژوهش حاضر مبتنی بر نظریه فرهنگی پیر بوردیو است. مطالعه حاضر از نوع پیمایش است که برای جمع آوری اطلاعات مورد نیاز از پرسشنامه استفاده گردیده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش عبارتند از کلیه پزشکان عمومی، متخصص، فوق تخصص، ماماها و پرستاران شاغل در بیمارستان شهدای تجریش شهر تهران که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری طبقه ای متناسب با حجم گروه ها، تعداد 280 نفراز آنها به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از مطالعه حاکی از آن است که: میزان تمایل جامعه پزشکی و درمانی به گردشگری در هر دو حوزه داخل و خارج از حد متوسط بالاتر است. تفاوت معنی دار در ذائقه فراغتی گروه های شغلی جامعه پزشکی - درمانی وجود دارد. رابطه معنی دار بین ذائقه فراغتی و تمایل به گردشگری وجود دارد به نحوی که هر چه نحوه گذران اوقات فراغت افراد نخبه تر باشد، تمایل کمتری به گردشگری خواهند داشت.
Social Distribution of Leisure Taste and Tourism Tendency (Case Study: The Health Sector)
Extended Abstract Introduction One of the most important principles in tourism planning is to identify the differences in the leisure time of different stratums of society. Today, due to the importance of constructive and positive effects of favorable utilization of leisure, scholars and policy makers, especially tourism planners, have emphasized on leisure time. This paper seeks to examine whether the various occupational-educational groups working in health sector due to the differential accessibility to the various kinds of capital have different leisure taste , or not? And, that the tendency to tourism among the various occupational-educational groups working in health sector significantly different or not? A critical Review of empirical researches and theoretical approaches in this field shows that each of them to explain the leisure time and tourism have emphasized on special variable. The first set of studies emphasizes on individual factors, such as life stage, needs, abilities and personality. The second group of research examines the social and environmental factors such as social context, employment and income. The third categories of research try to study the situation and services including the resources, facilities and programs. This paper takes a sociological approach to the study of the influence of social factors on the leisure taste and tendency to tourism. In this regard, this article has studied personnel of Health Sector as a one of the most important target groups in tourism planning. Materials and methods The research method is survey and data has been collected by questionnaire. The statistical population was the medical staff of Tehran Shohada Hospital including subspecialists, specialists, general practitioners, midwifes and nurses. Statistical sample was 280 people which selected by PPS method. In this research, Leisure Taste play as an intermediate variable which causes variation in tendency to tourism and is itself caused to vary by the occupational groups. Leisure taste is an individual’s personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference in spending leisure time. Leisure taste is measured by a self – administered measure based on Likert scale. Tendency to tourism, as a dependent variable, refers to willingness of respondents to travel to both inside their own country and abroad. Tendency to tourism in both domestic and international forms have been measured by two closed questions that ask whether they willing to travel (domestic – international) or not? Occupational-educational groups define according to Bourdieu’s theory of distinction. It refers to classification of employees in health sector who due to the differential accessibility to the various kinds of capital have different leisure taste. In this paper occupational groups classify in to three category؛ nurses, midwife and doctors.
Discussion and results The findings show that level of tendency to tourism in both domestic and international travel is more than the average point. There was a significant difference in leisure taste among respondents who working in health sector. In elite leisure category most frequency belongs to general practitioners. In mediocre leisure category most frequent subspecialist and in the mass leisure category nurses are the most frequent. There was not a significant difference in tendency to tourism between occupational groups in health sector. There is a negative relationship between leisure taste and tendency to tourism. It means the more leisure taste of people became elite, the less likely they tendency to tourism.
Conclusions Overall, the results confirm Bourdieu's theory. But results imply that explanation of the leisure time is somewhat complicated. A variety of personal, social, environmental and situational alone or in combination with other agents or collectively affect the taste of leisure and tourism. Bourdieu believes that social classes with high socio-economic status are doing elite leisure activities and in contrast, social classes with low socio-economic status, are doing the mass leisure activities. Level of education and job status, in a close relationship with others factors such as environment, class and income, are affecting leisure taste and tendency to tourism.Given that this research has been done on a particular occupational groups, it is suggested that such a research has been done on others target groups in the field of tourism planning. Keywords: Tendency to Tourism, Leisure Taste, Bourdieu’s Theory, Occupational-Educational Groups.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
Tendency to Tourism, Leisure Taste, Bourdieu’s Theory, Occupational-Educational Groups