1دانشجوی دکتری محیط زیست پردیس بین الملل ارس، دانشگاه تهران
2دانشیار گروه محیط زیست دانشگاه تهران
3استاد گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشگاه تهران
گردشگری پایدار، نیازمند جلوگیری از تخریب و انحطاط سیستم های اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اکولوژیک جامعه میزبان است. لازمه مدیریت صنعت گردشگری در هر منطقه حفاظت شده ای تدوین یک برنامه مدیریتی متناسب با ویژگی های بوم شناختی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی آن منطقه می باشد که این برنامه به مدیریت گردشگری، تسهیلات و امکانات مرتبط با آن کمک می نماید. در این تحقیق معیارها و شاخص های مناسب مدیریت گردشگری پایدار در طبیعت با استفاده از مطالعات مشابه در ایران و جهان استخراج شد. این معیارها سپس با استفاده از روش دلفی بسته، غربالگری شده و ضریب اهمیت آنها برای اجرای کاربردی در جنگل های مانگرو حوزه قشم و خمیر مشخص گردید. برای این منظور پرسشنامه نظرسنجی متخصصان (پرسشنامه دلفی) حاوی معیارها، زیرمعیارها و شاخص ها تهیه شد. این پرسشنامه در اختیار کارشناسان و صاحب نظران خبره در امر گردشگری و جنگلداری قرار گرفت. نتایج بر اساس درصد، درجه و ضریب اهمیت معیارهای مورد بررسی نشان داد که دو معیار ابعاد مدیریتی با زیرمعیارهای برنامه مدیریت، امنیت اجتماعی، ایمنی، مدیریت منابع وگردشگری و تنوع زیستی با زیرمعیارهای منابع ژنتیکی و تولید اولیه در محیط آبی، بالاترین درجه اهمیت را در میان معیارها داشتند. همچنین زیرمعیارهای برنامه مدیریت با شاخص سطح طرح ریزی مدیریتی، تخریب با شاخص چندپارچگی اکوسیستم، گردشگری با شاخص های تعداد جاذبه های زیبا شناختی، پراکنش منابع تفرجی، تعداد گردشگر، رضایت گردشگر، تعداد فعالیت های تفرجی سازگار، تجهیز مناسب گردشگاه و امنیت اجتماعی با شاخص تعداد وقوع تخلف و جرایم نیز بیشترین درجه اهمیت را به دست آوردند. روشن است که کاربرد معیارهای گردشگری در سایر اکوسیستم های طبیعی نیازمند بررسی و مطالعات مستقلی می باشد. در مجموع 11 معیار مشتمل بر 29 زیرمعیار و 53 شاخص برای اجرای مدیریت گردشگری پایدار در جنگل های مانگرو اهمیت داشته و در فرآیند تصمیم گیری قابل استفاده خواهند بود.
Criteria and Indicators in Screening and Management of Sustainable Tourism (Case Study: Khamir and Qeshm Mangrove Forests)
Extended Abstract Management of tourism in protected areas is essential to develop a management plan tailored to the characteristics of the ecological, economic and social area which can duly help tourism management, facilities and related services. In order to manage sustainable tourism in Mangrove forests, after reviewing and summarizing the internal and external references, 11 criteria and 31 sub-criteria and 55 indicators were extracted. The results of the Delphi questionnaire were distributed among tourism and forestry experts. Results based on a percentage, degree and coefficient of importance showed that 11 Criteria including climate, water, land, biodiversity, vegetation, wildlife, management dimension, cultural dimension, social dimension, economic dimensions and threats containing 31 sub criteria and 53 indicators are important for the implementation of sustainable tourism management in mangroves forests and will be used in the decision-making process. It is clear that implementation of tourism criteria in other natural ecosystems requires independent studies.
Introduction Sustainable tourism is a motivation for conservation and the protection of nature and threatened species in developing countries in particular. At the same time, it is an effective tool with its contribution to the economy and development of a region/country, the employment opportunities it creates and its role in rural development. While the Iranian Department of Environment (IDOE) has embarked on the mission of sustainable development through sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation in their protected areas, no monitoring system was developed nor was there a monitoring exercise undertaken by the protected areas authority. There is also no periodic evaluation of the protected area's performance in sustainable tourism management and biodiversity conservation. The IDOE is mandated to manage protected areas, conserve wildlife, promote sustainable tourism, and support sustainable economic development of local people living adjacent to protected areas. Therefore, these criteria and indicators will be used for assessing the impact of ecotourism on the socio-culture of local communities, biodiversity and environment of mangrove protected area. The indicators will also be the standard measurements for evaluating the action and performances of the IDOE in the management of protected areas.
Materials and Methods The Qeshm Island occupies an area of about 1,500 square kilometers (140 kilometers long and 11 kilometers wide on average) and is the biggest island of the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the most unique attraction on Qeshm Island and the coasts of Persian Gulf for every domestic and foreign tourist is the floating mangrove forest. These mangrove forests with an area about 8583.3 ha is located at 26° 43′ to 26° 59′ Northern latitude and 55° 32′ to 55° 48′ Eastern longitude. We tried to extract the main indicators by precise literature review. We selected the indicators of this study based on the literature review combined with the result on the necessary factors which were identified at sustainable management for ecotourism. First of all, the coefficient of degree of importance was adjusted based on below formula: Moderated coefficient Then by multiplying this adjusted coefficient by initial values, the moderated values (Yi) were calculated. The weighted values for each degree of importance (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) were calculated based on this equation: Weighted value (Zi) = Yi*n Where n is the number of experts who have selected the value for evaluating the importance of each indicator. Then sum of the weighted values will be estimated by. So, the percentage of importance for every indicator was calculated as below: Percentage of importance: /A*100 Maximum obtainable weighted value (A) =N*10 N=total number of experts Degree of importance = [ (Xi*n)]/N After calculating the degree of importance and percentage of importance of all indicators, unsuitable indicators were identified. Discussion and Results The results shows that "protected species diversity" indicator has gotten the most and "educational level" indicator the least normalized values. Also, "protected species diversity" has the most and "educational level" has the least percentage of importance and importance coefficient. The screened indicators by Delphi method are identified as suitable indicators for the purpose of this study. Except two indicators (Educational level and nonnative population), all indicators are received the necessary values (more than the median) and these two indicators should be omitted in sustainable management of sustainable tourism. "Protected species number", "level of management", "appropriate equipment of recreational areas", "existence of solid waste management system", " existence of waste water management system ", "ecosystem fragmentation" and "aesthetics features number" have the most normalized value; while "educational level" and "nonnative population" has the least normalized values.
Conclusion Delphi results showed that all primary indicators have the needed importance in experts' and decision makers' opinions and generally in the field of coastal region management these indicators and suggested model can be used in similar studies. We used Delphi method in this study and results showed that it is an efficient method in decision making processes. On the other hand, the suggested linear formula shows a mathematical relationship among screened indicators based on their normalized value through Delphi method. So, it is easy to understand and compare these indicators importance during practical decision making. This formula can be used for mapping processes and coefficients can be multiplied in ever indicator layer and lead to sustainable management by classified maps' overlying. Finally, the effects of indicators with both positive and negative points depend on their current condition in the purpose of this study. So it is obvious that Delphi method is an appropriate for selecting, prioritizing and screened the indicators for sustainable management and decision making and this is in accordance with the studies of Sepasi et al., 2010; Danehkar et al., 2012; Haddadinia and Danehkar, 2012 and Hasanzadeh et al., 2013 which applied the Delphi method to prioritize the ecotourism indicators. This model helps experts to understand importance levels and priority levels of all indicators and makes a suitable decision based on these priorities without destructing environment resources. Hence, Delphi method can be suggested as the most applicable method for sustainable management of tourism, especially in coastal regions and mangrove forests. Key Words: Delphi, Sustainable Tourism, Mangrove Forests, Khamir, Qeshm. References
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