2دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی دانشگاه گیلان
3دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه گیلان
تحقیق حاضر به دنبال بررسی نقش مولفه های سرمایه اجتماعی در رضایتمندی گردشگران بوده است که جهت نیل به این هدف مفهوم سرمایه اجتماعی بر اساس سه شاخص شناختی، ساختاری و ارتباطی مورد سنجش قرار داده شده است؛ به نحوی که اثرات هر کدام از شاخصهای فوق بر شاخص های رضایتمندی گردشگران (کالبدی- فضایی، عملکردی- ساختاری و محتوایی) مورد سنجش قرار گرفته است. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی است. تعداد 384 پرسشنامه در میان گردشگران در سطح شهر ماسوله تکمیل شده است. به منظور تحلیل سطح رضایتمندی گردشگران از روش همبستگی کانونی و آزمون فریدمن استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق گویای این است که در بین ابعاد سرمایه اجتماعی، بعد شناختی دارای بهترین عملکرد از سوی گردشگران است و همچنین بیشترین میزان رضایت گردشگران را نیز بعد محتوایی (شامل مسائل اجتماعی و فرهنگ مردم ماسوله) به خود اختصاص داده است. پس از سنجش جداگانه ی مولفه های مفاهیم سرمایه اجتماعی و رضایتمندی گردشگران، جهت بررسی بیشترین تاثیرگذاری هر یک از ابعاد سرمایه اجتماعی (شناختی، ساختاری و ارتباطی) به عنوان متغیر مستقل، بر روی ابعاد مختلف رضایتمندی گردشگران (کالبدی-فضایی، عملکردی-ساختاری، محتوایی-اجتماعی-فرهنگی)؛ مشاهده شده است که اگر چه بعد شناختی سرمایه اجتماعی بر رضایتمندی گردشگران تاثیر معنادار دارد اما بر عامل کالبدی-فضایی آن تاثیر معناداری ندارد؛ به عبارتی، بعد شناختی بر ابعاد عملکردی–ساختاری و محتوایی (اجتماعی – فرهنگی) تاثیر معنادار دارد و ابعاد ارتباطی و ساختاری نیز بر تمام ابعاد رضایتمندی تاثیر معنادار دارند. اما بیشترین اثرگذاری جزئی با توجه به درصد واریانس تبیین شده توسط اثر بعد شناختیِ سرمایه اجتماعی بر بعد محتوایی (اجتماعی فرهنگی) رضایتمندی است.
Assessing the Social Capital Indicators Affecting Tourist Satisfaction
(Case Study: Masuleh Town)
The present study seeks to examine role of social capital in satisfaction of tourists. To achieve this objective, the concept of social capital based on three indicators has been evaluated: perceptions, structural and communicative. So that the effects of each of the listed indicators on tourists satisfaction index (physical-spatial, functional-structural and content) were evaluated. The research method is descriptive and analytical type. 384 questionnaires were completed among tourists in the town of Masoule. To evaluate the satisfaction level of tourists, canonical correlation and Friedman test method is used. The results indicate that in the dimensions of social capital, cognitive component has the best performance from the tourists. Content components are allocated to the greatest satisfaction of tourists (including social and cultural issues of the Masoule people). After evaluating each element of concepts of social capital and satisfaction of tourists, Most effectiveness of each one of the components of social capital(perceptions, structural and communicative) as an independent variable on tourists' satisfaction(Physical-spatial, functional-structural, content, socio-cultural) was evaluated. It is observed that although the cognitive component of social capital has a significant impact on tourist’s satisfaction but it has not a significant impact on the physical-spatial factors. In other words, the cognitive component has significant impact on structural- functional aspects and content components (socio-cultural) and communicative- structural components have also significant impact on satisfaction. But the most impressive according to the percentage of variance explained by the effect of cognitive component of social capital on the content component (social-cultural) is satisfaction. Introduction
Social capital, unlike other investors is not physically present, but it's the result of the interaction and social norms. On the other hand, its increasing can cause serious lowering of the costs level of running society and operating costs of organizations. Social capital is not a set of institutions that are the social underlying institutions, but a loop that connects people to each other in the form of organizations, networks and volunteer organizations. The present study sought to evaluate the role of social capital indicators on the satisfaction of tourists. In order achieve this goal; we have examined the concept of social capital based on three cognitive, structural and communication indices. So the effects of each of these indices on tourists satisfaction indices (physical-spatial, structural-functional and content based (socio - cultural) can be measured.
Materials and Methods
This study is applied in terms of objective, and its approach is descriptive-analytic, with a sample size of 384 patients that was performed on tourists in the historic town of Masuleh. The data collection tool in this study include: library studies to collect information about research literature and reveal the social capital concept and satisfaction of tourist and filed studies which were used in this section, to obtain the relation between the variables, the questionnaire was used. The reliability of which was obtained using Cronbach's alpha of 0.712. The independent variables included all aspects of social capital and the dependent variable is the satisfaction of tourists. The tools to analyze the data are descriptive statistics including frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics including Friedman test and canonical correlation. This is done in the form of SPSS software. The concepts of this research are social capital and satisfaction of tourism.
Discussion and results
In response to the first question, cognitive dimension with an average of 25/3 and communication dimension with an average of 17.3 and structural dimension with an average of 72.2 were optimized, but to ensure about the conclusion, regarding answers to the survey questions, we used Friedman test with the participation of 384 tourist and confidence coefficient of 95%, Friedman test results show that Friedman test statistic with degree of freedom equal to 363/04 and significance level of 0.000, which is smaller than 5% error. In other words, the null hypothesis, based on the identity of the dimension performance has been rejected, and we conclude that the cognitive, social and communicative dimensions in terms of tourism don’t have identical performance and have significant differences in performance in the second question based on Friedman test, respectively, content dimension (social and cultural) with an average of 3/13 and functional-structural dimension with an average of 2/09 and physical-spatial with a n average of 1/2 have improved performance. But to ensure about conclusions, regarding answers to the survey question, we will use Friedman test with participation of 384 tourist and confidence coefficient of 95%. Friedman test results show that the Friedman test statistic with freedom degree of 2 is equal to 438/28 and significant level is 0.000, which is smaller than 5% error. In other words, the null hypothesis has been denied based on the identity of tourist satisfaction in these dimensions, so we conclude that tourist satisfaction based on content aspect (socio-cultural), physical-spatial and structural-functional dimensions was not identical and there is a significant difference in satisfaction of these dimensions. Since the aim of third question is to investigate the relation between a set of independent variables and the dependent variables, canonical correlation was used, although cognitive dimension of social capital has a significant impact on the satisfaction of tourists, but it had no significant effect on spatial and physical factors. Because the level of significance in this case is equal to 0.24, which is upper than 5% error, about other aspect, the significant level is lower than 5% error. In other words, the cognitive aspect has a significant impact on structural-functional and content (socio-cultural) aspects and also communication and also structural and communicational aspects have a significant impact on all aspect of satisfaction but the most minor impact with respect to the percentage of variance explained by the effect of cognitive dimension of social capital on the content (socio-cultural) is satisfaction. Conclusions
In order to analyze the level of tourists' satisfaction, canonical correlation method and Friedman test have been used. The research results showed that cognitive dimension has the best performance from tourist's view as well as the most satisfaction of tourists, is allocated to content aspect (including social and cultural issues of Masuleh citizens). Based on canonical correlation, also among the independent variables according to the percentage of variance explained by effect of cognitive dimension of social capital on content (socio-cultural) aspect is satisfaction. Keywords: Social Capital, Satisfaction of Tourists, Masuleh town. References:
Abdul RasidA, Nor Haniza,M Syed Shikh Syed A. Kader MohamadZaid,M MohdYusopAb.H, Amran,H,Khalifah Z. (2013). Developing Human Capital for Rural Community Tourism: Using Experiential Learning Approach،3rd World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership – WCLTA 2012،PP1835 – 1839.
Bidokhti, A, Sharifi, N. (2012). The relation between tourism and social capital in coastal areas of the Caspian Sea, Journal of Tourism Management Studies, Vol. VII, No. 17. Pages 149-121) in Persian. (
Bourdieu, P. (1983). “The Forms of Capital”, In: John G. Richardson (ed). Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press. P. 241-258.
Chi, G. (2005). “A study of developing destination loyalty model”, Doctoral Dissertation, Oklahoma State University.
Coleman, J. (1988). “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital”, American Journal of Sociology 94 (Supplement): P. 95-120.
Coleman, J. (2005). The role of social capital in developing human capital, printing, Tehran, publishing of Shirazeh. )in Persian(.
Collier, P. (1998). “Social capital and poverty”, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper. No. 4, Washington DC: The World Bank.
Dot, J. (1994). National rural tourism strategy, department of tourism. Available on www.tourism.gov.ph/pages/defaul.
Duk-Byeong P, Kwang-Woo, L, Hyun-Suk, C, Yooshik, Y. (2012). Factors influencing social capital in rural tourism communities in South Korea،Tourism Management 33 (2012) 1511- 1520
Ebrahim Pour, H, SeyedNaghavi, M, Yaghoobi, N. (2010). Factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty of tourists in the province of Ardabil (A Case Study of Sareyn), Journal of Tourism Studies, Issue 14.)In Persian).
Estelaji, A. (2005). Solutions for sustainable rural development with an emphasis on Applied Geography (Case Study: Viljick area of Namin), Journal of Sarzamin, Issue 5. )in Persian(
Fukuyama, F. (1999). The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. The Free Press. NewYork.
Gallent, N. (2015).Bridging social capital and the resource potential of secondhomes:The case of Stintino, Sardinia،Journal of Rural Studies 38 (2015) 99-108.
HezarJeribi, J. (2011). Sense of social security from viewpoint of tourism development, Journal of Geography and Environmental Planning, year 22, serial number 42, number 2. )in Persian(
Kawachi, I. (1999). “Social capital and community effects on population and individual health”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 896; PP:120-130
Laws, E. (1998). Conceptualizing visitor satisfaction management in heritage settings: an exploratory blueprinting analysis of Leeds Castle, Kent. Tourism Management, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 42-91.
Lee, J. H., Kim, H. D., Ko, Y. J., Sagas, M. (2011). The influence of service quality on satisfaction and intention: A gender segmentation strategy, Sport Management Review14
Macdonald, R and J Lee. (2003). culture rural tourism evidence from Canada, annals of tourism research, volume 30.
Mohammadi, E; Purshuhany, F; A Zadkhany, P. (2015). Role of Social Capital of citizens in attracting tourists (Case study: Ilam citizens), Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, No 12) in Persian (.
PaigeP.V, Christine, A.Vogt, AnnetteM. Rummel, J. (2015). Social network participation and coverage by tourism industry sector،Journal of Destination Marketing & Management., 4(2015)110–119.
Pazoki, M. (2003).Analysis of spatial function of flower cultivation and its role in Sustainable Rural Development (Case Study: Pakdasht), PhD thesis, Islamic Azad University of Tehran. )in Persian(.
Portes, A. (1998). “Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology”. Ann Rev Social, 22; PP: 1-23.
Putnam, R. (1993). The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life. American Prospect. P. 35-42.
Qadiri Masoom, M and Mahdavi, M & Ismail Nea, H. (2004). Development of employment in rural areas (Case Study: Lahijan), Journal of Geographical Researches, Tehran University, No. 48. )in Persian.(
Qadiri Masoom, M and Mahdavi, M, Salmani, M and Barghi, H. (2007). The relation between geographical origins and distribution of rural settlements in arid (Case study: villages of Khoor & Biabanak of Naein), Journal of research at Isfahan University, Issue 3. )in Persian( .
QadiriMasoom, Mestelaji, A and Pazoki, M. (2010). Sustainable tourism (rural and nomadic), First Edition, Tehran, Tehran University Press. )in Persian( .
Sahabi, J. (2009). The effect of social elements on social security in city of Sanandaj, Journal of social sciences. The third year. No 3. Autumn. )in Persian( .
Sharafi Masouleh, F and Foroughi Masouleh, N. (1993). My Town of Masouleh, Municipal Masouleh. )in Persian( .
Spreng, R.A. and Chiou, J.S. (2002). A Cross-cultural Assessment of the Satisfaction Formation Process, European Journal of Marketing, 36(7): 829–839.
Warner, F. (1999). Social capital construction and the role of the local state, rural sociology pp. 120-159.
Weibing Zhao, J.R. Brent Ritchie, Charlotte M. E. (2011). Social capital and tourism entrepreneurship, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 38, Issue 4, October pp.1570-1593.
Williams, P. (2005). Customer Value and Tourism Satisfaction: a Multidimensional Perspective, ANZMAC2005 Conference: tourism Marketing. 129-138.
Wong, J., and Law, R. (2003). “Difference in shopping satisfaction levels: A study of tourists in Hong Kong”, Tourism management, 24.
Yurdkhany, M and Pazoki, M. (2008). The role of tourism in sustainable development of Persian Gulf islands (with an emphasis on Qeshm island), Proceedings of the National Conference on role of Persian Gulf in world strategic changes, Islamic Azad University of Garmsar and geographical publications. )in Persian.(
Zargham, H. (1997). Strategies for tourism development in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Proceedings of Conference on Tourism and Islamic Republic of Iran, Volume 1, Kish Island. )in Persian(.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Social Capital, Satisfaction of Tourists, Masuleh town