محیط پویای صنعت گردشگری و نیز تغییرات آنی تقاضای گردشگران، لزوم ارایهی خدمات و محصولات خلاقانه را بسیار حیاتی نموده است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بسط و ارزیابی مدل 4پی (افراد، فرآیند، مکان و محصول) در زمینهی خلاقیت فعالان صنعت گردشگری صورت پذیرفت. این پژوهش کاربردی، کمّی و پیمایشی می باشد. جامعه ی آماری پژوهش شامل فعالان صنعت گردشگری در شهرستان رامسر به تعداد 1009 نفر بوده است. روش نمونه گیری، تصادفی ساده بود و حجم نمونه از طریق جدول مورگان، 278 نفر محاسبه شد. پس از توزیع 350 پرسشنامه، تعداد 324 پرسشنامه ی قابل استفاده جمع آوری گردید. بررسی فرضیه های پژوهش، از طریق تکنیک مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار لیزرل 54/8 انجام شد. یافته ها نشان داد که تمام روابط علّی موجود در مدل 4پی خلاقیت (تاثیرات افراد بر مکان، افراد بر فرآیند، مکان بر محصول و فرآیند بر محصول) معنادار بوده و تمامی فرضیه ها تایید شدند. بر اساس یافته ها، می توان نتیجه گرفت که لزوم ایجاد یکپارچگی در ویژگیهای خلاقیت (افراد، مکان، فرآیند و محصول) صنعت گردشگری ضروری بوده و تاکید بر عامل افراد خلاق و شناسایی آنها در هنگام جذب و استخدام حیاتی تر می باشد؛ زیرا آنها، زمینه ی بروز مکان کاری خلاق، فرآیند کاری خلاق و در نتیجه محصول خلاق را فراهم می سازند.
Tourism Creative Product Modeling:
Development of 4P’s Model
(People, Process, Place and Product)
Dynamic environments of tourism industry and also immediate changes in tourist demands, have created the needs to provide creative products and services. This study aims to evaluate the 4P model (People, Process, Place and Product) in areas of Activists Creativity in Tourism Industry. This study used quantitative and survey research. And the population of the study consisted of activists of tourism industry in the city of Ramsar which itself consisted of 1009 people. The sampling method used was simple randomand the sample included 278 participants through Morgan Table. After distributing 350 questionnaires, only 324 usable questionnaires were collected. Hypotheses Test was performed through techniques of structural equation modeling (SEM) by using LISREL 8.5 software. Findings showed that all relationships in the 4P model of creativity (the effects of people on place, of people on process, of place on Product and of process on Product) have significant coefficient and all the hypotheses have been confirmed. Creativity in Activists of Tourism Industry in the city of Ramsar needs to integrate its features (people, place, process and product), especially by focus on creative people and identify them during recruiting; because of it provide field of incidence creative place, creative work process and therefore creative product. Introduction
In recent studies of urban economies, tourism is listed as one of the most creative industries which not only attracts tourists, but also enhances economic development (Sleuwaegen & Boiardi, 2014). Creativity plays an essential role in obtaining an international competitive advantage because it is the manifestation of the wisdom and knowledge of human capital, which can transform creativity into value creation and offer individuals and organizations a sustained competitive advantage (Wu et al., 2014). Following the rapid development of the tourism industry, changing tourist demands and novelty idea needs, tourism organizations seem increasingly keen to develop employees’ creative potential, encourage creative motivation and provide incentive to develop creativity and innovation to attract tourists and develop distinction, economic spin-off and authenticity (Jarabkova & Hamada, 2012).
In early studies, has asserted that the creative thinking process is a problem-solving system adopted by the individual. The creativity aspects of the 4P (person, process, product, and place) model of “person”, “process”, “place”, and “product” have been raised in recent studies (Hansen et al., 2012; Peng , 2013). Tourism and hospitality researchers have yet to develop an integrated theoretical framework of the 4P model that explains the unique, independent effects of tourism organizations’ employees to help organizations more fully leverage the inﬂuence of the 4P model on creativity.
So the main question of this study is that "what relations are there between the 4P Model of Creativity (creative people, creative process, creative product and creative place) in tourism industry of Ramsar city? Materials and Methods
This study, has been Quantitative, survey and applied research and was carried out during 1394 year (2015). Population of the study have formed from Activists of tourism industry to the number of 1009 people in the Ramsar city of Mazandaran Province. The sampling method was Simple random. Sample size Through Morgan table was calculated 278 participations. Research data were obtained through questionnaires. After distributing 350 questionnaires, were collected 324 complete and usable questionnaires. Validity of the questionnaire through convergent validity and reliability of the questionnaire by using Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability were examined that they were good and acceptable for all variables. Examines the hypotheses of the study was carried out through structural equation modeling technique by using LISREL 8.5 software package and SPSS22.
Discussion and Results
The present study aimed to develop and evaluate 4P model (people, process, place and product) in the field of employees' creativity in tourism industry. The results showed that creative people positively affect the Creative work place in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2013; Gange et al., 2012; Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007; Liu & Wall, 2006). Second sector of findings showed that creative people positively affect the Creative process in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2013; Gange et al., 2012; Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Moreover, it was found that creative work place positively affect the Creative product in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Dul et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2009; Schepers et al., 2007), and finally, It became clear that creative process positively affect the Creative product in the tourism industry, this is in line with the findings (Horng et al., 2014; Zhang & Bartol, 2010; Horng & Hu). Conclusions
Overall, it can be argued that factor of employee personality is one of the most important affecting on climate of business environment and creative process. Tourism organizations can increase your level of creativity through select people who have proactive personality. The employees with proactive personality, effectively participate in the exchange of information that it can lead to a friendly working environment. On the other hand, the creativity is dynamic factor that need to integrate in its process characteristics.
since the employees of tourism industry compared to other organizations and industries will experience more stress in their working environment, Recommended To the managers of the tourism organizations in Ramsar city, that in the selection of personnel and their employees, choose people that have positive attitude to their job, Because they not only encourage other employees to trust-oriented communications, but also motivate others in solving problems and difficult job, and affecting the process of creative thinking and improve organizational performance. Managers should constructively and accurately expand Positive working environment in order to foster creative people, creative environment and creative processes, creative products and performance through awareness to employee by using display innovative abortive efforts of people with negative personality at a time when employees encounter problems during the build creative process.
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
Creative Employee, Creative Place, Creative Process, Creative Product, Tourism Industry