1استادیار گروه گردشگری پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری
2استادیار گروه مدیریت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد فیروزکوه
3دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی بین الملل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران
هدف اصلی این پژوهش، آزمون یک مدل نظری برندینگ برای برند ملی ایران است، که حاصل ادغام مفاهیم برندینگ و تصویر مقصد می باشد. تصویر مقصد به عنوان متغیر میانجی بین تداعیاتش (انگاره ادراکی-شناختی، انگاره هیجانی-احساسی و انگاره منحصر به فرد) و رفتار آینده گردشگر (قصد بازدید مجدد و توصیه مقصد به دیگران) در نظر گرفته شده است.گردآوری داده های مورد نیاز برای ارزیابی مدل مفهومی پژوهش، از طریق پرسشنامه و با مشارکت 396 نفر از گردشگران خارجی که در خردادماه 1394 پس از بازدید از اصفهان، تهران و یزد از شهر شیراز بازدید کرده اند، انجام شده است. این پرسشنامه ها در شهر شیراز و در سه سایت گردشگری آرامگاه حافظ، ارگ کریمخان و بازار وکیل در اختیار گردشگران قرار گرفت. ارزیابی مدل مفهومی پژوهش از طریق تحلیل مسیر به روش حداقل مربعات جزئی و به کمک نرم افزار VISUAL PLS انجام گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد که تصویر ذهنی گردشگران خارجی از ایران بر رفتار آینده گردشگران تاثیری مثبت دارد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده انگاره هیجانی-احساسی دارای بیشترین تاثیر، و پس از آن انگاره منحصر به فرد دارای بیشترین تاثیر بر تصویر کلی از ایران می باشد.
A Model of Tourism Destination Branding for Iran: Integrating the Concepts of Branding and Destination Image
Extended Abstract In today's world branding is a modern concept that is used for goods, services, organizations and even countries. This study aimed to test a theoretical model of destination branding. This study reviews the literature on destination branding, destination image and reasons for revisiting and recommending. It was proposed that destination image (brand image) is a multi-dimensional construct, influenced by the cognitive, unique, and affective images that collectively affect tourist behaviors. For this purpose, an empirical test was conducted in Iran. It is proposed that the overall image of Iran (brand image) as a mediator between its brand associations (cognitive, affective, and unique image components) and tourists’ future behaviors (intentions to revisit and recommend). The target population of this study was incoming tourists, who visited at least four cities of Iran (Tehran, Esfahan, Yazd and Shiraz) during their trip to Iran in May and June 2015. To evaluate the relationship between structure variables partial least squares method is used and the data was processed with the statistical package visual pls. The results confirm a positive effect on visitor's overall image on tourists’ future behaviors (intentions to revisit and recommend). Overall image is influenced by three types of brand associations (cognitive, affective, and unique image). In addition, affective image had the first largest impact on the overall image formation. Introduction Nation brand is a wide spectrum of nation’s activities that includes export of foreign investment, culture and cultural heritage, people, governing and tourism. Actually, nation brand is a symbol of a nation from different dimensions. The main goal of this study is determining the relationship between affective image variables, overall image of a nation brand, cognitive image, unique image, intention to revisit a country and recommending it to others. And in case of such a relationship, what will be its limit and extensions? Correlations studies will evaluate some of variables, presuming that they have relationships with some variables.
Material and Methods According to target, current research is applied research which is aimed to deals with solving practical problems. The current study categorized as a descriptive research that is used to describe characteristics of a population or a phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research generally precedes explanatory research. According to data collection this is a survey research, the researcher selects a sample of respondents from a population and administers a standardized questionnaire to them. Survey research is often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. A good sample selection is a key method, as it allows one to generalize the findings from the sample to the population, which is the whole purpose of survey research. The target population of this study was incoming tourists, who stopped at five selected city (Tehran, Esfahan, Yazd and Shiraz) during their trip in May and June 2015.Because the size of population was not clear, simple Random Sampling was used in this study as a sampling approach and the sample size was set at 384.
Discussion and Results This study aimed to test a theoretical model of destination branding. It was proposed that destination image (i.e., brand image) is a multi-dimensional construct, influenced by the cognitive unique and affective images that collectively affect tourist future behaviors (intentions to revisit and recommend). Overall, the results showed that destination image exerts a mediating role between the three image components as the brand associations and the behavioral intentions. Overall image must be considered as an important factor in tourism marketing because its critical impact on tourists’ intention to recommend as an important information source has to form overall image of particular destination in potential tourists’ minds. Based on the results of this study, first affective-emotional and then the unique images of Iran have the most influence on destination general image (Iran). In addition to the theoretical contribution on destination branding, this study provides practical implications especially salient for the Iran. It reflects all the key components of a destination brand including its positioning, its rational (head) and emotional (heart) benefits and associations, together with its brand personality.The results show the least influence of conceptual-cognitive image among affecting factors on general image of Iran. Refer to effective factors on these images that includes quality of experiences, local attractions, environment, infrastructures, entertainment and recreations and items used for assessing these factors, following suggestions have been discussed to improve the situation.
Conclusions Based on the study results through questionnaire, shopping centers and facilities and access to the tour itinerary have the least impact on effective factors of trip experience quality. Another effective factor on effective-cognitive image to consider is local attractions. The third influential factors are country infrastructures and public environments. Among items forming it, variety of local foods has the least influence so it is proposed that cultural heritage organization as tourist proctor and municipalities as city branding proctor proceed on special local and national food festival and also tourism exhibition advertising in the field of traditional (home-made) foods.
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