2دانشجوی دکتری جامعه شناسی مسائل اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران
انرژیهای تجدیدپذیر در مقایسه با سوخت های فسیلی، کربن بسیار کمی را تولید می کنند. از این رو، اشاعه و کاربرد انرژیهای تجدیدپذیر به عنوان یک نوآوری زیست محیطی باید در سیاستهای مقابله با تغییر آب و هوا بیش از پیش مورد توجه قرار گیرد. در این بررسی، میزان شناخت و گرایش صاحبان اقامتگاه های گردشگری نسبت به انرژی های تجدیدپذیر مورد بحث قرار گرفت. رویکرد بررسی، کمی و از پیمایش به عنوان روش بررسی استفاده شد. ابزار گردآوری داده ها، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود و از 2793 اقامتگاه، 121 اقامتگاه گردشگری در شهرهای محمودآباد، نور و بابلسر با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده استفاده شد. مهمترین یافتههای این تحقیق عبارتند از: گرایش مثبت صاحبان اقامتگاههای گردشگری به انرژی های نو، عدم وجود رابطه بین سن، تحصیلات، سابقه اشتغال، قدمت اقامتگاه و نوع اقامتگاه با گرایش به انرژی های تجدیدپذیر و وجود رابطه بین تعداد واحدهای اقامتی و گرایش به این نوع انرژی و در نهایت، عدم تفاوت در سطح گرایش به انرژی های تجدیدپذیر در شهرهای بررسی شده.
The Analysis of Tendency’s Owners of Residential Centers to Renewable Energies
Extended Abstract Introduction The review of literature show that renewable energies such as solar, wind and geothermal energy can considered as an innovation in the form of the more common forms of energy such as fossil fuels. In fact, we can speak about environmental innovation. Environmental innovation, in its broadest form, includes any innovation that reduces environmental harm (Kanerva et al, 2009). More specifically, environmental innovation can be defined as ‘the production, assimilation or exploitation of a product, production process, service or management or business method that is novel to the firm and which results, throughout its life cycle, in a reduction of environmental risk, pollution and other negative impacts of resource use compared to relevant alternative’ (Kemp and Pearson, 2008; in Kanerva et al, 2009:7). “Environmental innovation is associated with technological change and institutional change in the manufacture and delivery of services. Environmental innovation control nature and direction of the development. In fact, this type of innovation base on the principle of sustainability that it reduces the amount of damage toward the environment. Environmental innovation diffuse attitudes and behaviors supportive environment. In general, renewable energy as an environmental innovation reduce degradation of environment overall and the sustainability of environment” (Sanchez-Medina et al, 2011: 987). This type of innovation has three dimensions (goals, mechanisms and effects). The purpose of new or renewable energy development in the society is reducing pollution and keeping the environment healthy. Moving from fossil fuels to renewable sources will try to maintain the balance of the environment and society. This type of energy is improved environmental conditions. And diffusion of it in a society requires coherence and coordination between environmental policy and innovation. Synchronization innovation and environmental policies can contribute to sustainable development and stabilization of society (OECD, 2009). NGOs flourish environmental innovation in society. In fact, the reduction of environmental damage (such as improved air pollution) and avoidance of further damage to the natural environment, changing lifestyles and consumer behavior is defined in the context of social innovation. Hence to explanation it in terms of environmental terms particularly in discussing environmental policy it is necessary to not only the technology but lifestyle changes. Adoption with the application of renewable energy in the tourism industry by the owners of tourist resorts is considered a new issue in Iran. Therefore, the use of environmental innovations, as previously mentioned, are required to change attitudes and behavior’s owners of tourist resorts. Residential centers using renewable energy can greatly reduce their costs and energy consumption in residential centers can be managed by the owners’ residence. If we expect that the tourism industry, particularly in residential centers, use renewable energy as alternative energy, the foremost need is changing the attitude and behavior of owners’ residential places. Tourists’ residential centers can be found in different parts of Iran including in Mazndaran. In fact, Mazandaran province with over 1 million tourists annually is one of the major tourist destinations in Iran. The main tourist destination in Mazandaran province is coastal cities like Babolsar, Mahmoudabad and Noor. Given the importance of the issues mentioned above, this study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) How is attitude of tourist resort owners toward the use of renewable energies in the tourism industry? 2) How is attitude of tourist resort owners towards the use of renewable energies to demographics variables (age, education, type of residence, number of residential units)? 3) Materials and Methods This study aims to investigate attitudes of tourism residence owners towards using of renewable energies in tourism industry in three cities of Mazandaran province, Iran. By utilizing quantitative approach, we conducted a survey and collected the required data by using structured questionnaire. Participants in this study were surveyed by face to face in September 2013. 121 tourism residence owners participated in this study. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed through formal validity. That is used the viewpoints of tourism and energy experts to adaptation of questionnaire with the expected characteristics. In September 2013 when it was the peak of tourism arrivals in those cities, questionnaires were distributed among the target population and completed and collected by the end of September. Variables defined with conceptually and operationally. As such, renewable energy refers to types of energy that contrary to some types of non- renewable energy are returning to nature (Meadows and et al, 2001). These resources adapt with environment and produce less environmental pollution compared to other energy sources (α= 0.67).
Discussion and Results In this study, attitudes of tourist resorts owners towards renewable energy were studied. This study has shown that small-scale and local communities are sensitive towards alternative renewable energies. The positive and weak relationship between age ‘participants, age of resident unites and tendency to renewable energy was one of other results. Employment history has moderate and positive relation with attitudes’ owners of tourist resorts towards RE. Finally, the results of this study showed that there was a negative but moderate relationship between number of resident and attitudes towards RE. In other words, with reduction of resident unites, willingness’ owners of tourist residence to using of RE in resident unites increase. It seems that A) new energy technologies are expensive. The cost of energy produced from renewable sources is still high. Iran’s government can create a space that renewable energy technologies can compete with fossil fuel technologies through presentation of funding mechanisms and an appropriate legal framework. B) Iranian people lack adequate knowledge of the renewable energies resources. In other words, consumers are not aware of the benefits and opportunities of renewable energy. Government and relevant agencies should be encouraged to promote training programs in this field. C) Lack of awareness of the service provider organizations related to the limitations of using these resources. Therefore, it is recommended appropriate circumstances be provided for consulting firms to provide counseling and support for installation and use of renewable energy equipment. Keywords: Renewable Energy, Owners of Tourism Residents, Province of Mazandaran. References
1. Broman, L. and Kandpal, T. (2011). Public Understanding of renewable energy, World Renewable Energy Congress, Sweden, 8-13 may 2011. 2. Dalton, G., Lockington, D. and Baldock, T. (2007). A survey of tourist operator attitudes to renewable energy supply in Queesland, Australia, Renewable Energy, Vol.32: 567-586. Lea Thuot, L., Vaugeois, N. and Mahr, P. (2010). Fostering innovation in sustainable tourism, Journal of Rural and Community Development, 5(1/2): 76-89. Meadows, D., Randers, J. and Meadows, D. (2001). Limits to Growth, Translated by Ali Habibi & Farzam Por Asghar Sangachin, Tehran (2009): Institute for management and planning studies (IMPS). (In Persian) Sagafi, M. (2009). Renewable Energies, Tehran: Publications of Tehran University (In Persian) 6. Yung Feng, H. (2012). Key factors influencing users intentions of adopting renewable energy technologies, Academic Research International, 2(2):1-13.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Renewable Energy, Owners of Tourism Residents, Province of Mazandaran