2دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات آذربایجان شرقی
4دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد رشت
چکیده گردشگری فراتر از یک صنعت و به مثابهی یک پدیدهی پویای اجتماعی و جهانی است و بیشک توسعهی گردشگری، یک فرایند و فعالیت سیاسی نیز محسوب میشود. اگرچه ایران در نقشهی گردشگری جهانی جایگاه بسیار مهمی دارد؛ اما سهم واقعی این کشور از میزان ورود گردشگران بینالمللی و درآمدهای ناشی از آن بسیار ناچیز و حتی نسبت آن به کمتر از یک به پانصد میرسد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان میدهد که سیاستهای گردشگری در ایران به ندرت برخاسته از الگوهای رایج آن بوده و بیشتر تحت تأثیر مؤلفههای سیاسی بوده است. سطح بندی اولویتهای سیاستگذاری گردشگری ایران، از جمله اهداف اصلی مقالهی حاضراست؛ لذا این تحقیق با تأکید بر برخی از متغیرهای سیاسی تأثیرگذار بر روند ورود گردشگران بینالمللی و گنجاندن آنها در ابزار تحقیق و پرسشنامه، اقدام به نظرخواهی از 150 نفر از متخصصین فعال در این حوزه نموده است. برپایه نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق و نیز نظریات کارشناسان، به ترتیب بهبود سیاستهای بینالمللی، مشارکت و فعالیت در سازمانهای بینالمللی، توسعهی سیاسی، و بهبود نظام اداری را مهمترین اولویتهای سیاستگذاری برای توسعهی گردشگری در ایران دانسته و پیشنهاد مینماید. تأثیرگستردهی مؤلفههای سیاسی مسلط برگردشگری از یک سو و اقتصاد دولتی متکی بر نفت از سوی دیگر، موجب کم رنگ شدن و در نهایت به نادیده انگاشتن گردشگری به عنوان یک بخش مهم ا قتصادی شده است. در این شرایط گردشگری با حضوری بسیار کم رنگ، همواره در حاشیهی سیاستها و برنامههای کلان توسعهی دولتی قرارگرفته است.
Introduction There is no doubt today that tourism as a universal socioeconomic phenomenon is more than an industry and that tourism development is a political process. Despite the fact that Iran has an enviable position on world tourism map, reality however, shows something different! Its real share is as low as 1/500 of the world markets. Tourism in Iran has a fundamental difference; this difference lies on its political economy. In the current paper we attempt to analyze the causes, dimensions and their impacts on tourism. Although Iran is known as one of the world's oldest civilizations, it is eighteenth in the world in terms of size, population and economy (World Bank, 2009; UNDP, 2010). It has a unique place on world tourism map but it faces major challenges in tourism development like many developing countries, Iran faces numerous challenges for tourism development; the political economy is the most effective one in this case. This paper attempts to explore Iran's tourism as a multi-dimensional phenomenon with particular focus on the political economy of Iran. Tourism policy-making priorities which are based on a field study constitute some other parts of the current paper.
Materials and Methods In Iran tourism policies are rarely based on tourism; such policies are mostly affected by cultural, social and especially Iran's political economy. Since research on Iran's tourism policy-making is the main goal of this research, research tools and questionnaires will be used to assess the problem. The statistical population of this research are students and professors of political geography, tourism management, tour guides, managers of tourism agencies and also international tourists who visited Iran. 150 individuals were selected as sample statistical population based on personal estimation method and 10 questions were asked in closed method.
Discussion and Results Tourism more than an industry and as a universal and dynamic social phenomenon has special complexities that are shaped by special mechanism in different places and times. Therefore, the present research believes that similar to other countries, Iran should change its political economy perspectives. It is clear that most of the tourism development plans will be limited due to lack of macro changes in policy making that are related to present trend. The wide effects of social, cultural, ideological and political economy as well as Iran's oil based economy have led to ignorance toward tourism industry as a main economic sector and a major source of revenue. The current paper pays attention to political economy. Tourism policies in Iran are more influenced by the country's political economy than from careful planning. An increase of centralization and a dependence on national economy based on oil revenues, and the growth of government, lack of social pluralism, and presenting an unreal image about Iran are negative impacts of the current political economy. In this study it is tried to explore the different dimensions of tourism that provide a proper context for its development through political approach. Accordingly this research proposes following certain policy-making priorities for the development of tourism in Iran based on the results of questionnaires and viewpoints of experts: improvement of international polices; taking and continuing the détente policy on international levels, development and improvement of foreign relations as the primary priority of the respondents, membership in international organization; membership in regional and international organizations such as UNWTO as the second priority, development of democracy; political and democracy expansion and elimination of discrimination ; improvement of the administrative system; activation of embassies and foreign cultural offices, reduction of administrative barriers such as the cancellation of visa issuance limitations constitutes the fourth priority.
Conclusions According to the results of the present research paper the prerequisite of truism development and improvement is bringing a change in the political economy approach. In addition to the results of field research (table 2), this research proposes that the government as the main policy maker should take the following measures: a gradual replacement of government role as supplier of tourism products to policy-making and stopping its support of polices of interfering in the activities related to tourism industry in Iran; transforming ICHTO into an independent ministry and implementing special polices for increasing foreign and private investment; reconstructing and restoring tourism facilities such as accommodation and transportation; developing international tourism by membership in World Trade Organization (WTO) and UNWTO; expanding the conceptual framework for tourism as an inevitable phenomenon and introducing the negative and positive effects of tourism. The analysis indicates that (effect of Cohen Index=Ø2) the highest priority for the choice is “continuing the policy of détenteon international levels" for the improvement of tourism industry. The final section of this paper consists of several recommendations for tourism development in Iran.