چکیده توسعهی پایدار روستایی، یکی از معیارهای اصلی توسعهیافتگی جوامع است که در سالهای اخیر مورد توجه واقع شده است و به دنبال ارائهی شیوههای مناسب زندگی در سطح روستاها از طریق حفظ و تقویت قابلیتهای طبیعی و انسانی و همچنین کاهش محدودیتهای آنها است. بسیاری از برنامهریزان و سیاستگذاران توسعه، گردشگری را روشی مطمئن و با چشمانداز روشن برای توسعهی پایدار معرفی کردهاند. به نظر میرسد در کشور ما با توجه به پتانسیلهای بسیار بالای گردشگری روستایی، سازوکار مدون در جهت توسعه گردشگری روستایی از سوی مراکز نهادهای مرتبط با روستا با جدیت دنبال نمیشود. موزههای روستایی- همچون«موزه در هوای آزاد» و «اکوموزه» - یکی از اقدامات در راه حفاظت از پدیدههای مادی و معنوی گوناگون، منتج از سکونتگاههای سنتی شکل میگیرند، توسعه مییابند. روستای ابیانه در استان اصفهان با این نقش و تأثیرگذاری در توسعه پایدار روستایی میتواند یکی از این اکوموزهها باشد. این مقاله با استفاده از منابع کتابخانهای و با استفاده از مدل تحلیلی SWOT ، به بررسی شناخت نقاط قوت و ضعف این روستا در تحقق اهداف یک اکوموزه و آثار تقویت گردشگری روستایی بر شاخصهای اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، بومشناختی و توسعهی مکانی به عنوان ابعاد توسعهی پایدار روستایی میپردازد. یافتهها نشان میدهد که توانمندسازی گروههای روستایی، افزایش آگاهی اجتماعی، گسترش مشارکت همراه با تدارک مدیریت راهبردی میتواند در ایجاد اکوموزه روستا و توسعهی گردشگری در روستای ابیانه مؤثر باشد.
Understanding the Strengths and Weaknesses of Rural Tourism Development; A Case Study: Rural Eco-Museum of Abyaneh-Isfahan
Introduction Charming nature, farm life, traditional architecture and social life are some of the most important components of tourist attractions; they are also some of the most important potentials of rural areas in making profit out of rural tourism boom. One important reason why these areas did not flourish can be the neglect shown toward these regions. Tourism can be strengthened through creating employment and forging new sources of income. Both eco-tourism and rural tourism enjoy a high rate of revenues. Despite this, Iran lies at the bottom of world ranking when it comes to eco and rural tourism. The Abyanehvillage in Isfahan province, for example, can be a good example of a tourist destination that can attract a huge number of both international as well as domestic tourists due to its natural and environmental features, natural landscape and architecture.
Materials and Methods The current paper uses a descriptive analysis method of research. In terms of evaluation and analysis the SWOT technique is used. The points that are in connection with the internal and external factors are in the list of matrices, then according to the experts, the rank and the coefficients among the numbers zero to one and one to four in the respective matrices are inserted and in accordance with the coefficients of internal and external factors and according to the number of + 2.5 and –2.5 are analyzed. Finally, according to the number specified in the SWOT model the intended strategy is offered. Thus, the consistent strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats matrix of an important tool that can be used to compare the information and to provide four types of strategies are utilized.
Discussion and Results As previously noted, the use of the eco-museum and rural tourism and also sustainable development policies require a rigorous planning management. Hence, by using the distributed statistical community questionnaire and by taking advantage of the SWOT analysis, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats affecting tourism development in eco-museum in the village of Abyaneh can be identified. The findings of the first stage of the analysis (internal factor) shows that the score of the assessment on internal factors have been less than 2.5; namely 2/42, and that represents the internal weaknesses in the system. The findings of the second stage of the analysis (external factors) on the matrix of the external factors, shows the final score of 2.3, which is less than number 2.5 that indicates adverse conditions. But the difference between the scores of domestic and foreign factors represent the internal factors in comparison to foreign status. And rating obtained in connection with external factors indicates that the threats are more than opportunities, that based on the analysis of SWOT technique the strategy of this kind of conditions is aggressive and has got the executive ability to remove the weaknesses. In order to change the current mode, it needs specific strategies; in this section they are based on the result of the combined final score of the internal and external factors in SWOT, and the type of strategy is determined according to the greatest number of round. According to the final results of the SWOT analysis matrix, the historical context component and cultural customs component of the village are considered the most important components of strengths. The lack of service facilities in the village is highlighted as the first noticeable and the component of ignoring the role of the countryside as the key to rural development is seen as the last weaknesses on the way of tourism development. In addition to these, creating new economic opportunities for native residents is considered as one of the most important opportunities; moreover, having an investment in the infrastructure was identified as the lowest important external opportunity for the development of tourism and the development of villages. Among external threats, the vulnerability of the rural culture and the destruction of village texture were taken as the main weaknesses in the management and planning of tourism in rural areas.
Conclusions The results of the research indicated that the creation of rural tourism and eco-museum in the village of Abyaneh has significantly affected the economic, social and environmental dimensions of the country sides. This can spread prosperity and social justice in rural areas and increase local people's income and reduce poverty; it can also lead to environmental sustainability. Hence, in order to reduce poverty, discourage emigration, create jobs, and preserve traditional culture of villages it is essential to develop sustainable rural tourism. In the planning process and the development of rural tourism, local and rural people's participation and decision-making is inevitable; this is meant to maintain economical, social and environmental benefits of the people of the region. Therefore, the participation of local people in the planning and development of tourism activities is imperative and inevitable.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords:Tourism, sustainable development, Rural Development, Abyaneh Village, Eco-Museum, SWOT