چکیده: توسعهی گردشگری روستایی از مسیر کسبوکارهای کوچک که غالباً به سرمایههای اندک نیازمند هستند، میتواند نقش مهمی در متنوعسازی اقتصاد روستاها ایفا کند. ازاینرو مطالعهی حاضر با هدف شناسایی بسترهای موجود برای ایجاد و گسترش بنگاههای گردشگری از دیدگاه ساکنین نواحی روستایی بخش کن، صورت پذیرفت. جامعهی آماری تحقیق را 2767 نفر از ساکنین نواحی روستایی بخش کن تشکیل دادهاند که با استفاده از جدول مورگان و تاکمن، 300 نفر از آنان از طریق نمونهگیری تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار کار پرسشنامه بود و جهت تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها از نرمافزار SPSS استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که ایجاد بنگاههای گردشگری که ضمن ارائهی خدمات بهتر برای گردشگران، رفاه بیشتری برای ساکنان منطقه فراهم آورد، از اولویت بالاتری برخوردار بود. پاسخگویان جوانتر و فعالان بخش گردشگری با سطح درآمد پایینتر، تمایل بیشتری نسبت به امکان ایجاد و توسعه کسبوکار گردشگری در منطقه داشتند.
Survey of Small and MediumEnterprise (SME’s) Activities Based on Rural Tourism; A Case Study of Ka’an,Tehran
Introduction Rural tourism development needs to enjoy a high level of experience. Agriculture has been the primary industry and there needs to be an adaptation to the service role. Businesses based on rural tourism are smaller and newer than other forms of economic activities in the rural areas. They are located in remote areas with a low capital base and function with low-level skills. Experience in tourism and the development of tourism business and infrastructure can stimulate local economies providing rural population with an alternative income. Rural tourism is very diverse and fragmented in terms of operational structures, activities, markets and operating environments. Rural economies are limited by two factors: they are either based on agricultural production or,in many developed countries, they are impacted by government policies. Most rural tourism businesses are small, owner-operated, and act as a second income, and so they are generally not earning a lot of money. This income is still important, however, as it increases the economic viability of businesses on and off. One of the most basic economic problems of the agricultural sector in Iran is a low average rural income. Despite the high potential of tourism in rural areas of Iran, it is essential to pay attention to the context for creating and developing tourism-oriented activities t in rural areas.
Materials and Methods The method of research used for this research is descriptive survey. The data used were collected through questionnaires, interviews with local people, and also through researcher observation. A researcher-made questionnaire was utilized with acceptable validity. The reliability of the research was measured through a pilot study conducted in Seyed Abad village of Taleghan in Alborz province with Cronbakh’s Alpha value (0/97). The population con Statistical population of study has been the local residents of seven villages of Suleghan of county of Ka’an (Suleghan, Rendan, KesharOlya, ImamzadehDavood, Sangan, Kigah and Verdij) with a population of 2767. The statistical sample involves 300 people according to the table of Morgan and Tucman through random sampling. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software.
Discussion and Results About 3/27% (82 units) had the participation experience in a variety of businesses related to the small and medium enterprise. The minimum rate of participation in the tourism business was one year's work experience and the highest level was 23 years. Tourism activities in this region, generally speaking, did not have a suitable boom and tourism business had not been known as a reliable and stable source of income by the local residents. This shows that in rural economy, tourism activities are at a low level in the residents of the region’s baskets of income and tourism activity is limited in various parts.
Conclusions The best platform for tourism business development belonged to the construction of garages, parking lots, and biking tracks. Indeed, local people have adapted the needs of tourists. Younger respondents and participants of the tourism sector with lower income levels showed more positive attitude toward creating tourist activities in the rural region. Rural communities often look for a few immediate benefits and short-term goals this is largely due to fatalism, social connections, limited knowledge and skills. Results showed that women showed more optimism toward creating diverse tourism enterprises in comparison to men in the region. The result showed that women were more eager in participating rural tourism activities.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords: Rural tourism, Small and Medium Enterprise, Preference, Ka’an