چکیده هدف اصلی این مقاله بررسی پیامدهای محیطزیستی گردشگران بر نواحی ساحلی دریای مازندران است. جامعهی آماری این پژوهش شامل تمامی گردشگران سواحل دریای مازندران است. از طریق فرمول کوکران 270 نفر از این گردشگران به عنوان نمونهی آماری تعیین گردید و بهوسیلهی نمونهگیری تصادفی نیز انتخاب شدند. دادههای مورد نیاز از طریق پرسشنامه از دیدگاه خانوارهای ساکن در سواحل و مسئولان مرتبط گردآوری شد، که روایی ظاهری و محتوایی پرسشنامه آن بر اساس نظر اساتید مرتبط و پایایی آن بر اساس آلفای کرونباخ (81/0 – 92/0) تأییدگردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها از نرمافزار آماریSPSS استفاده گردیده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان میدهد که پیامدهای مثبت محیط زیستی گردشگران ساحلی نسبت به پیامدهای منفی آن کثرت بیشتری دارد و اکثر افراد از ویژگیهای طبیعی سواحل رضایت دارند؛ ولی از امکانات و تسهیلات رفاهی و بهداشتی رضایت چندانی ندارند. 76 درصد سواحل را از لحاظ مطلوبیت، متوسط و خوب میدانندو حدود 23 درصد افرادسواحل را از لحاظ مطلوبیت مناسب نمیدانند. همچنین اکثر گردشگران معتقدند هتلها، رستورانها و مراکز تفریحی در ایجاد پیامدهای محیطزیستی منفی در سواحل نقش مهم و تأثیرگذاری دارند.
A Survey of Environmental Consequences of Tourism in view of People and Stakeholders on Coastal Areas of the Mazandaran
Introduction Nowadays, tourism regard as one of important industry in the world. Most of economical analyzers believe that tourism industry stands at the third place after oil and automobile industry by creating 110 million direct jobs. And also it is expected that by increasing the number of travels and the tourism development in different countries, in the following years, the importance of this industry will be increased more than before. (Ghaffari and Turki, 2009). Recently, tourism industry has a special place in the economic section of countries and it has an active and effective role in promoting economical, social and cultural structure specially in developing countries, as the number of international interactions shows that more than %10 of interactions start with tourism industry and in some countries the resulting revenues considered as one of the major sources to develop national economic (Sanaee,2007) .Tourism development is a major phenomenon occurred in the recent years of 20th century which continues rapidly in the new century. Rising revenues, increasing leisure time, new changes and attitudes in life concepts and the necessary of international provision lead to intensive development of tourism (Sharpleya and Vassb , 2006). Main objective of this paper is the survey of environmental impact of tourism on coastal areas of the Mazandaran located in northern Iran.
Materials and methods This research is a cross-sectional study. Inhabitants of Mazandaran coastal are the statistical community in this survey from which 270 people were chosen according to Kokran formula in a simple sampling method. The main tool of this survey is a questionnaire which refers to trainers decision and evaluation include the members of scientific panel to assure the face and content validity of questionnaire. To examine the reliability of questionnaire, KronbakhAlphay was applied and the scales of questionnaire were above %82 in all the causes the collected data were analyzes using SPSS software. For analysis and deduction of data, variants scale and intended objectives, descriptive statistic method was used such as average, statistical analysis methods like single sample t and spearman correction coefficient. It is essential to note that, developing seaside tourism regards as independent variant in this survey and its negative effects on environment considers as dependent variant. Totally this research is done in order to reply to these 2 main questions: 1) Is there a significant relation? tourism development and environmental effects in Mazandaran’s seaside? 2) Does seaside tourism development have a negative effects on seaside environment from the inhabitants point of view?
Discussion and Results Single sample T test was applied in order to evaluate (negative and positive) effects of tourism development from inhabitants point of view. In this regard, considering the fact that answers are set in a 3-choice format, number 2 regards as medium as a result, if the average of repliers' score is more than medium, this means that most of repliers pay more attention to intended result and choose "I agree" choice. On the basis of research findings, 7 positive results of tourism development were significant and they were confirmed.
Conclusions Coastal tourism is a separate category comparing to other sources of tourism. By accelerated growth rate in tourism, coastal environment must endure a lot of pressure, this needs more consciousness in achieving an environment which forms the basis of tourism industry. Tourism growth leads to many sources for coastal regions, however not scheduled development causes environmental damages. For example, not scheduled tourism with unhealthy managing system, and thus, sewage pollution results from tourism settlement, leads to sea inhabitant located near sea line. The results also show that these people were not satisfied with health (sanitary) and welfare facilities provided and in terms of desirability and quality rating of beaches were at moderate to good levels. About %23 of these same people do not approve of these coastal areas in terms of desirability and durability and most residents believe that hotels, restaurants and leisure centers play an important role in causing major negative environmental consequences.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Key words: Coastal tourism, Environmental consequences, Mazandaran coastal area