گردشگری امروزه در بسیاری از مناطق توانسته است تحولات زیادی در بنیانهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی جوامع شهری پدید آورد و در این میان نقش پروژههای بزرگ گردشگری درخور توجه است. در این مقاله تلاش شد تا تأثیر شرکت گردشگری پدیده بر روند توسعهی شهر شاندیز از دیدگاه کارشناسان مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه، از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از نظر روش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است که بخش عمدهای از دادههای آن بر اساس مطالعات میدانی و از طریق مصاحبه و تنظیم پرسشنامه از 18 نفر از کارشناسان فعال در سطح منطقه جمعآوری شده است. یافتههای مطالعه بر اساس نتایج بهدستآمده از روش تحلیل سلسلهمراتبی نشان میدهد در بین متغیرهای آثار حضور شرکت گردشگری پدیده، بیشترین ضریب اهمیت به آثار اقتصادی با 5/45 درصد و کمترین ضریب اهمیت به آثار زیستمحیطی حضور این شرکت در شهر شاندیز با 2/8 درصد بوده است. بر اساس آزمون تی دونمونهای بر مبنای تحلیل واریانسها، مشاهده شد که از بین شاخصهای 15گانه و متغیرهای چهارگانه فقط در دو شاخص توسعهی حملونقل شهری و عدم بهرهبرداری اصولی از زمین فرض عدم برابری واریانسها تأیید شده است. بنابراین در اکثر قریب به اتفاق شاخصها و تمام متغیرها اختلاف معناداری بین نظرات دو گروه کارشناسان وجود ندارد. با توجه به یافتهها، راهکارهایی شامل توجه به تربیت و جذب نیروی کار بومی، توجه به برند شهر آرامش در شاندیز، فراهم نمودن زیرساختهای شهری متناسب با فعالیت شرکت پدیده، کاهش آثار زیستمحیطی فعالیتهای گردشگری در سطح منطقه و غیره پیشنهاد شده است.
Effects of Padideh Tourism Company on the Urban Development in Shandiz
Cities and tourism are mutually complementary, as all types of tourism somehow need urban services and centers. Therefore, any planning for tourism development should take into account the capabilities of cities in providing direct and indirect services. Large urban projects in tourism sector can play a significant role in urban tourism boom. Currently, Shandiz upcountry and its surrounding areas are quite well-known and act as a tourist attraction for people living in Mashhad metropolis in regional level, and for pilgrims of Imam Reza (AS), the eighth Shi'a Imam, at the national level. However, in recent years, there have been major investments in urban mega projects (Padideh dreamland) which already have affected the urban structure of Shandiz before the plan is inaugurated. Therefore, the main research questions are "What are the effects of Padideh Tourism Company on urban development of Shandiz, in the short run? And "What are the differences between the ideas of experts working in the company and those in government and non-governmental organizations about the consequences of Padideh Tourism Company on Shandiz?"
Materials and Methods
With regard to the aim of the study, this is an applied one, but methodologically, this is a descriptive-analytical study. Some parts of the research data were collected using field studies and by means of questionnaires, and the other parts of the data, such as the conceptual-theoretical framework, documents and census data were obtained by library research. To explore the effects of Padideh Tourism Company, we enquired 18 experts (9 from Padideh Tourism Company, and 9 from associated institutions and organizations); to complete the questionnaires we personally went to the offices of the related organizations and institutions. It should be noted that, before developing the questionnaire, in a round of interviews, the company's overall impact on the development of Shandiz was considered and then we proceeded to develop the questionnaires. Having collected the data, to analyze the effects of Padideh Tourism Company, we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and Expert Choice software for paired comparisons, generating hierarchies, and calculating the weights and conflicts in hierarchical process. To conduct a comparative analysis between experts of Padideh Tourism Company and experts of government and non-governmental organizations, we employed two-sample t-test in SPSS. According to the research questions, the following hypotheses were constructed:
It seems that the Padideh Tourism Company in the short run left the greatest impact on the economic dimensions of urban development in Shandiz.
It seems that there is no difference between the views of experts working in the Padideh Tourism Company and those working in government and non-governmental organizations about the consequences of Padideh Tourism Company on Shandiz.
Discussion and Results
Our findings suggest that in economic dimension, the index of new direct and indirect employment opportunities in the city (employment) with a coefficient of 0.365, and the index of investment by locals and non-locals in Shandiz (investment) with a coefficient of 0.179 respectively had the largest and lowest impacts. In social dimension, the index of the impact of the Padideh Tourism Company on attracting tourists and their longer stay in Shandiz (tourist attraction) with a coefficient of 0.280, and the index of demand for specialized labor force for major projects in various economic sectors (attracting skilled labor force) with a coefficient of 0.146 respectively had the highest and lowest impacts. In physical dimension, the index of rise in construction projects, physical development and land use changes (physical development of the city) with a coefficient of 0.453 and the index of improvement in transport infrastructure and urban road networks (urban transport development) with a coefficient of 0.169 respectively had the largest and the lowest impacts. In exploring the environmental effects, the index of rise in unplanned development and violating environmental principles and standards in construction projects, and land destruction due to presence of Padideh Tourism Company (none-standard use of land in the city) with a coefficient of 0.349 and the index of direct or indirect changes caused by Padideh Tourism Company to the natural landscape (change in natural landscape) with a coefficient of 0.299 respectively had the highest and lowest impacts. In exploring the effect of Padideh Tourism Company on economic, socio-cultural, physical-spatial and environmentaldimensions, from experts' view, the research findings suggest that the variable of economic consequences with a coefficient of 0.545 and the variable of environmental changes with a coefficient of 0.082 respectively had the highest and lowest impacts.
The research findings show that based on data collected in the survey of experts' view, among the variables associated with the presence of Padideh Tourism Company, the economic effects with the weighting coefficient of 54.5% and the environmental impact with the weighting coefficient of 8.2% respectively had the highest and lowest importance. Accordingly, the first research hypothesis is confirmed. To respond the second research question, namely, whether 'there is any difference between the views of the experts working in the Padideh Tourism Company and those working in government and non-governmental organizations about the consequences of Padideh Tourism Company on Shandiz', according to two-sample t-test based on analysis of variance, we find that of 15 indices and 4 variables, only in two indices of public transportation development and non-standard use of land, the assumption of unequal variances is confirmed. Therefore, in majority of indices and variables, there are no significant differences between the views of two groups of experts; therefore, the second hypothesis is also confirmed.
According to surveys conducted during the research process and the results obtained, the following suggestions are made:
In the economic dimension, if Padideh Tourism Company pursues an approach of employing local labor force, and if the taxes that the company and its associated units pay are allocated to management and urban development of the city, one could be hopeful of future economic boom in the city.
To give due attention to Shandiz as a quiet place enjoying economic and societal security which can possess the brand name of "the peaceful city" with the goal of attracting more tourists to the area.
Due to probably high price of land and housing in the future, the demographic composition of Shandiz will change and a multi-layer social context will be created, to the extent that native residents will probably constitute a minority and make way for social conflicts in the area. Therefore, in line with the scenario of social justice and sustainable development, more attention should be given to native inhabitants of the city.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords: Urban Tourism, Mega-Projects, Padideh Tourism Company, Shandiz City