گردشگری پدیدهای نو شناخته میشود که از نیمهی سدهی بیستم بهتدریج همگام با گسترش آن در فضاهای روستایی وارد ادبیات علمی مطالعات روستایی شده است. این روند نخست از کشورهای توسعهیافتهی اروپایی و آمریکای شمالی آغاز گردید و در دو دههی اخیر مورد توجه پژوهشگران و مسئولان توسعهی روستایی کشورهای درحال توسعه و از جمله ایران واقع شدهاست. بررسیهای بهعملآمده در این پژوهش نشان میدهد که پیشینهی این موضوع در ایران به آغاز دههی1380 باز میگردد و در چند سال گذشته رشد قابل ملاحظهای در محافل علمی-دانشگاهی یافته است. این پژوهش با روش اسنادی بهطور خاص، سوابق مطالعاتی گردشگری روستایی در حوزه نشریات علمی-پژوهشی کشور را تجزیه و تحلیل میکند و با طرح پرسش های کلیدی، چه چیزی یا چه موضوعی؟ چرا یا چه مسالهای؟ کِی یا چه زمانی؟ در کجا؟ چه کسانی و با چه تخصصی؟ در پی شناخت و تحلیل ویژگیهای کلی حاکم بر مطالعات گردشگری روستایی است. یافتهها بیانگر 136 اثر علمی- پژوهشی چاپشده در مجلات علمی-پژوهشی کشور تا پایان تیرماه 1392 است و بیشترین پژوهشها در استانهای تهران و مازندران انجام شده است. مجموعهی مطالعات انجام شده قابل تقسیم به پنج محور برنامهریزی و توسعهیگردشگری، آثار و پیامدهای گردشگری، ارزشگذاری اقتصادی گردشگری، تحلیل گسترش جغرافیایی و سنجش پایداری گردشگری است. 66.17 درصد از کل مطالعات انجام شده دارای روششناسی کمّی است. مهمترین اشکال مطالعه شده شامل گردشگری خانههای دوم و طبیعتگردی میشود.
Rural Tourism Studies in Iran: A Documentary Analysis of Published Articles in Persian Journals
Tourism is a modern phenomenon that gradually entered rural spaces from mid twentieth century consistent with its geographical expansion and consequently entered in academic literature of rural studies. First this trend was initiated from developed countries of Europe and North America. Then In the past two decades be considered by scholars and authorities of rural development in developing countries. In Iran, background study on rural tourism goes back to early years of the twenty-first century. And in the past few years has obtained significant growth in scientific and academic assemblies; although until now not found considerable status in national development policies. This research by documentary methodology and with particular emphasis on scientific studies that published in Persian journals investigates general features of rural tourism literature in Iran; And by providing key questions, what? Why? When? Where? Who? Try to explore identification and analysis general characteristics that are dominant in rural tourism studies.
Most of the early studies in rural tourism related to complex changes of modern era, including all dimension of economic, political, social - cultural and technological, economic, political, socio - cultural and technological, etc.; the backgrounds that gradually provide appropriate conditions for mass tourism development from years after World War II. Since that time until the late twentieth century different discourses and approaches raised in context of rural tourism studies, that some concludes them under the four platforms. First of them was “advocacy” platform that featured mostly economic prospects of tourism and accentuated on its benefits. Second, “Cautionary Platform” focused on the socio-cultural aspects of tourism and brought benefits of tourism under scrutiny. Third “Adaptec Platform”, when both the positive and negative aspects of tourism had been conjured, research attention was drawn on those alternative forms of tourism developments which were potentially sustainable, with minimal unwanted consequences. Finally, “Knowledge-base Platform” maintains bridges with others but the goal is to form a scientific body of knowledge on tourism.
Materials and Methods
The main approach of this research is based on documentary and or archival research. The statistical sample consisted of all scientific research of rural tourism that published in Persian scientific and academic journals in Iran. The time scope of research is from that time that rural tourism studies literature began to enter the Academic and scientific works of researchers in country until July 2013. Based on proposed wh-questions in research a framework was designed to acquire intended data. This framework consisted of the characteristics, such as: Topic and research question, researcher expertise, time study, the geographical domain of research, the dominant approach to research methodology, data collection tools and techniques, tools and methods and techniques of data analysis, and rural tourism shape. Finally, with regard to intended goals the data became classified and then analyzed. Result: Results show that from the early twenty-first century to July 2013, about 136 articles have been published in Persians scientific journals. Largest number of research has been conducted on Tehran and Mazandaran provinces. Total of studies can be classified into five categories, including: policy, planning and development of rural tourism; impacts and consequences of rural tourism; economic rates of rural tourism; geographical expansion of rural tourism; assess the sustainability of rural tourism. Most important of studied rural tourism shapes are second home tourism and nature-based tourism. Geographers have superior role in the study of rural tourism in Iran, and so that more than 60 percent of carried researches have contributed by geographers. Finally, quantitative methods are the main methodological approach (66.7%) and questionnaire is the main instrument for data collection.
Despite more than half a century of research experiences on rural tourism in developed countries, in many developing countries, the subject of rural tourism is a new concept in literature of rural tourism studies. In Iran the backgrounds of rural tourism studies go back to first years of twenty first century, and in recent years faced with an accelerate grow. It seems that most of the research in Tehran and Mazandaran provinces primarily is due to its proximity to Tehran metropolitan as the capital and largest wealth and population center in the country. In general can be seen traces of all discourses of tourism development in these studies, but there is not a rational process and to some extent “advocacy platform” is more prominent. Dominant of geography in rural tourism studies, first can be seen in dominant role of geography in rural studies, second in contemplating tourism as a geographical phenomenon. Dominance of quantitative methodology represents positivistic approach in rural tourism studies in Iran. This situation requires change of approach in tourism research methodology, and benefiting from hybrid methodologies.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords: Rural tourism, scientific literature of tourism, documentary analysis, published articles, Iran