صنعت هتلداری بهعنوان یکی از زیرساختهای مهم صنعت گردشگری به شمار میرود و کیفیت خدمات یکی از مهمترین مباحث در رقابتپذیری بنگاههای خدماتی در صنعت هتلداری است؛ بنابراین هتلها باید با آگاهی از انتظارات مشتریان خود و همچنین ویژگیهایی که انتظارات آنها را از کیفیت خدمات تحت تأثیر قرار میدهد، کیفیت خدمات خود را ارتقا داده و رضایت مشتریان خود را جلب کنند. تحقیق حاضر تأثیر ویژگیهای جمعیتشناختی سن، جنسیت، وضعیت تأهل، میزان درآمد و میزان تحصیلات 168 نفر از مهمانان هتلهای سهستاره به بالای استان سمنان را بر انتظارات آنها از کیفیت خدمات مورد بررسی قرار داده است. برای سنجش کیفیت خدمات از شاخص لادجسرو استفاده شده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها، ابتدا با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی 26 سؤال به 5 بعد کیفیت خدمات تقلیل یافته و سپس با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره، تأثیر ویژگیهای جمعیتشناختی بر ابعاد پنجگانهی کیفیت خدمات بررسی شده و فرضیهها مورد آزمون قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که سن، تنها ویژگی جمعیتشناختی است که بر انتظارات مشتریان از پنج بعد کیفیت خدمات تأثیر میگذارد و ویژگیهای جمعیتشناختی جنسیت، وضعیت تأهل، میزان درآمد و میزان تحصیلات هیچ تأثیری بر انتظارات مشتریان از کیفیت خدمات نمیگذارند.
The effect of demographic characteristics on customer expectations for service quality in Semnan's lodging industry
The hospitality industry is considered one of the most important substructures of the tourism industry, and service quality is known to be the most important and challenging matter for the hospitality enterprises within the industry. Hence hospitality enterprises face increasingly critical problems in achieving competitive advantage within the industry while coping with a marketplace that is shifting in demographic and economic terms. In such a competitive situation customer satisfaction has been identified as a crucial key factor for the hospitality enterprises and the lodging industry such as hotels and other lodging firms. In order to determine customer satisfaction and to raise service quality, lodging firms should gain information about their customers' expectations and demands and also about the different characteristics and factors that might effect their expectations. The aim of this study is to find the effect of demographic characteristics such as age, gender, marital status, educational level and income level on the customer's expectations for service quality in the lodging industry.
Materials and Methods
In this study survey research methods based on questioners were used. Information required for indicators was collected via the study of related books and theses and analyzed with SPSS statistical software. This study investigated the effect of demographic characteristics of 168 customers of 3 star, 4 star and 5 star hotels in Semnan on their expectations for the service quality. Subjects reported their age, gender, marital status, educational level and income level as demographic characteristics. The instrument used for this study was LODGSERV; a 26-item index developed by Knutson, Stevens, Wullaert, Patton and Yokoyama which was used to measure the subjects' expectations for the five dimensions of service quality which are: tangibles, assurance, reliability, responsiveness and empathy. Data collected for this study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The analysis was conducted in two stages. First the 26 questions were reduced to the five dimensions of service quality through the use of principal component analysis, and then Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to examine the 6 hypotheses of this study which examined the effect of demographics and also the interactions between different demographic groups on customer expectations for the five dimensions of service quality.
Discussion and Results
This study was designed to examine customer expectations for service quality and how demographic characteristics of the customer might influence those expectations. The result of hypotheses testing using MANOVA showed that age was the only demographic characteristic of the customer that had a significant effect on customers' expectations for the combined dimensions of service quality. The other demographic factors (gender, marital status, educational level and income level) were not significant and no significant interactions were found between different demographic groups. Further results which were conducted through ANOVA showed that age had a significant effect on responsiveness which is one the five service quality dimensions. It also showed that expectations for this customer service dimension were higher for customers between the ages of 56 to 65. As a result this group was more concerned about the item that indicated providing prompt and quick service. The other important factors that hotels and lodging firms should take into account is educating and employing a staff that make the customers feel comfortable and confident in dealing with them and giving extra effort to handle the customers special requests. Hotels should have personnel who are both able and willing to give the customers information about the hotel and outside services. Thus it is suggested lodging firms spend their time and effort on identifying information about their customers specially their customers' age.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords: Demographic Characteristics, Service quality, Customer Expectations, Lodging Industry