فضاهای عمومی شهری بستر رشد جامعهی شهری هستند؛ لذا احساس امنیت فردی و اجتماعی و احساس آرامش در این گونه فضاها امری انکارناپذیر است. در این بین وجود امنیت و نظم در پارکها و گردشگاهها که خود واجد ابعاد فردی و اجتماعی است، از اهمیت بسیار بالایی برخوردار است. ارتقای سطح امنیتی پارکها و گردشگاهها موجب افزایش رغبت و تمایل شهروندان به فعالیتهای گردشگری میشود. هدف این تحقیق شناخت میزان احساس امنیت و اجتماعی در گردشگاهها از دیدگاه گردشگران و شناسایی رابطهی آن با برخی از عوامل اجتماعی و محیطی است. روش تحقیق از نوع پیمایشی و ابزار سنجش آن را پرسشنامه محقق ساخته است. جامعهی آماری شامل کلیهی گردشگران مراجعهکننده به دو گردشگاه عمدهی شهر گرگان (النگدره و ناهارخوران) است. حجم نمونهی آماری بر اساس فرمول کوکران تعداد 384 نفر برآورد شد. نمونهها با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری هدفمند (نمونهی در دسترس) بهطور تصادفی در گردشگاهها از طریق مراجعه به گردشگران انتخاب شده و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. برای جمعآوری دادهها از ابزار پرسشنامه همراه با مصاحبه استفاده شد. اعتبار ابزار تحقیق با استفاده از اعتبار صوری و پایایی سؤالات آن با استفاده از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ در حد بالاتر از 75/0 مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که وجود احساس امنیت اجتماعی در گردشگاههای مورد مطالعه، دارای کارکردهای مثبت برای گردشگران و توسعهی گردشگری است. تحلیل دادهها نیز نشان داد که بین عواملی مانند جنسیت، سن، سطح تحصیلات و تعلق بومی با ارزیابی گردشگران نسبت به احساس امنیت فردی و اجتماعی رابطهی معنیداری وجود دارد.
A Study of Tourists’ Views on Personal and Social Security Perception and other Affecting Factors
(Case Study: Tourists of Naharkhoran and Alang Dareh Regions in Gorgan)
Along with urbanization development and expanding metropolitans as well as increasing the complexity of social relationship in cities, the meaning of safety in urban, has changed from the primary stage and physical aspect. Public sphere of the cities are a proper base for developing the cities and as such, personal and social perception towards safety in these spheres are undeniable. Holding security in parks and resorts which has personal and social aspects seems important. Increasing the security level in such areas with increase tourists intention and willingness towards tourism activities. Safety perception in resorts has significant personal and social functions which may create in unsafety if this functions leads to dysfunctions. In urban regions, resorts have specific position and if the number and quality of these socio-cultural spheres increase, citizens find much more opportunities for their leisure time. The main purpose of the resorts are providing citizens with calmness and leisure time and holding safety in these resorts and public spheres like pars have different personal and social functions. There are many obstacles to achieve to provide citizens personal and social needs and these obstacles have led to decrease citizen safety and tranquilization. This has led to development of resentment, loneliness, grief, fear, social tension, separation from the nation and distrust and social deviance People misbehavior will affect on all visitors who came to visit these spheres. The purpose of this study is to get to know personal and social safety in resorts from to view of tourists and the related affecting factors.
Materials and Methods
The nature of the subject, i.e. identifying security perception from the view of tourists required to apply survey method. This leads to apply descriptive method along with documentary studies as well as survey to study and measure the level of personal and social safety. The population of the study composes of all tourists who came to visit the city of Gorgan(Alang Dareh and Naha Khooran). To estimate the size of the sample, Quchran formula was use and 384 tourists were identified accordingly. To select the sample, purposive sampling method was applied. Face validity was used to measure the validity of the questionnaire and the reliability of the questions were measure by calculating Alpha Chronbach which was estimated .75%. To analysis the data, different appropriate statics were utilized.
Discussion and Results
Descriptive results show that the level of personal safety (2.94 out of 5) is less than social one (2.66 out of 5).The results of correlation between variables showed that there was a significant relationship between personal and social safety perception with trust, personal trust, social trust and media consumption. However, the results showed no relationship between age and level of education wit safety perception. The results also showed that women felt much more security compared with men. The findings also indicated that while the level of personal safety perception was lower in Naharkooran and the level of social security was much more in Naharkhooran. The analyses of the results showed that there was a significant relationship between safety perception with social trust and between total safety perceptions with social trust. Also there was a relationship between personal and social safety.
To compare with the results of the previous studies, the result shows that the findings of the current research are compatible with studies conducted by Hezrjaribi (1390), Asemi Ahangar (1385), Salehi Fad (1389), Rfieyan (1388), Sedaee(1389). These fining also are incompatible with the results of the studies carried out by Nabavi (1390).From the results of this studies can conclude that what tourists say and is known as safety perception is related with personal and social safety perception. It can be said safety perception is a kind of mentality and mental orientation of the citizens about not affecting the presence and occurrence of some events. Citizen sphere has the largest relation with people and retorts and this leads to creating identity formation and giving safety perception. The results of the study also showed that the presence of personal and social safety in surveyed resorts has positive function for tourists and developing tourism in the surveyed areas.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords: personal safety perception, social safety perception, social trust, Alang Darreh Park, Nahar Khooran Park, Gorgan