چکیده امروزه گردشگری بهعنوان یکی از بزرگترین صنایع درجهت ایجاد درآمد و ارتقاء رشد و توسعهی اقتصادی بسیاری از کشورها تبدیل شده و رشد آن تغییرات اجتماعی و اقتصادی زیادی را بهدنبال داشته است. این مطالعه به بررسی اثر گردشگری بر توسعهی انسانی در کشورهای منتخب (56کشور) شامل ایران، طی دوره 2011-2005 و با استفاده از مدل دادههای تابلویی میپردازد. در این پژوهش، جهت بررسی اثر گردشگری بر توسعه، از شاخص توسعهی انسانی استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان میدهد تعداد ورود گردشگران خارجی اثر مثبت و معناداری بر توسعهی انسانی کشورها دارد. از این رو توسعهی این صنعت جهت دستیابی به اهداف توسعهی اقتصادی و انسانی برای هر کشوری ضروری بهنظر میرسد.
Extended Abstract Introduction Today, tourism has become one of the biggest industries in generating revenue and which can enhance economic development in the countries around the World. This study investigates the impact of tourism on human development in 57 countries including Iran from the period 2005 to 2011. This paper uses human development index to examine the effect of tourism on the development. The result that uses a panel data regression model indicates that the number of tourists has a positive and significant effect on human development in the countries under consideration. Hence, the development of tourism industry to achieve economic and human development goals are recommended. Introduction Today the concept of tourism has been found to be quite different from the past. In other words, it is seen as an economic imperative. Tourism affects national employment levels, increases foreign exchange earnings, thrives local industry, expands of international cooperation, and most importantly, improves the welfare of the people. And many other factors caused world 's attitude to the border it evolved as one of the most important driving forces of economic development, government policy will play an important role. Iran is one of the world's major tourist hubs. This study investigates the effects of tourism on human development in selected countries (57 countries), including Iran, using a panel data model. In this study ,the Human Development Index is used to estimate the effect of tourism on development. Materials and methods Panel data regression model has been used in the present study to examine the impact of tourism on human development for selected countries over the period 2005-2011. The sample includes both developed as well as developing countries. The model is specified as follows:
Where, expresses the human development index, health-related expenses, the number of foreign tourists to the country, life expectancy and education indicators are related expenditure (all variables are entered by the log). Discussion and Result Based on the Hausman test, fixed effects method used as appropriate method of estimation. The estimated value of the F statistic shows the regression is significant. The coefficients of the variables in the model represents a significant and positive relationship with Human Development Index. This means an increase in each of the components, namely education, health, life expectancy and the number of tourists will increase the human development index which in turn means an improvement in the living standards in the country . Conclusions Tourism as one of the components of the service sector has played an important role especially in developing countries in promoting growth and development. The estimation results indicate that the number of foreign tourists has a positive and significant impact on the human development index. This result is not unexpected .Tourism encourages the flow of foreign currency and employment and also improves health, education, and welfare while alleviating poverty and inducing economic growth. Therefore concentrating on tourism as an important component of service industry enables countries to achieve development goals. Regional and international organizations can speed up this process.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
human development, Tourism, Selected Countries, Iran, Panel Data