چکیده توجه به جایگاه صنعت گردشگری، از آنرو اهمیت دارد که میتوان با بهرهگیری مناسب از منابع طبیعی و انسانی، علاوه بر امکان رشد اقتصادی، به ترویج بخش کشاورزی و تولید صنایع بومی و محلی پرداخت و گامی در مسیر بهبود شرایط زیستمحیطی و پاسداشت مواریث فرهنگی بومی و آداب و رسوم محلی در جوامع میزبان برداشت. شهر بابلسر بهعنوان یکی از اصلیترین مراکز گردشگری ایران با جاذبههای غنی و مواهب طبیعی و مصنوعی شاخص و کمنظیر هرساله میزبان تعداد زیادی از گردشگران داخلی و خارجی است که بررسی تأثیرات اجتماعی- فرهنگی این دست از گردشگران و سهم آنان در توسعهی پایدار شهر امری اجتنابناپذیر است. در پژوهش حاضر، از روش تحقیق پیمایشی از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی استفاده شده تا از دید مردم و مسئولین شهر، تأثیر گردشگری بر توسعهی فرهنگی- اجتماعی آن، مورد مطالعه و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گیرد. دادههای مورد نیاز با استفاده از منابع اسنادی- کتابخانهای و همچنین با بهکارگیری پرسشنامهی تدوین شدهی پژوهشگر، بازدید میدانی و مصاحبه با سازمانهای مرتبط و سرپرست خانوارهای ساکن در شهر بابلسر، گردآوری شده است. نتایج پژوهش با استفاده از آزمونهای آماری پیرسون و کندال-b، نشان میدهد که از دیدگاه مردم تأثیر گردشگری شهری بر 5 شاخص و از دیدگاه مسئولین بر 6 شاخص از 14 شاخص مورد بررسی مورد تأیید قرار گرفتهاند که لزوم توجه به این صنعت در برنامهریزیها را اثبات مینماید.
Evaluating the Socio-cultural Effects of Urban Tourism on the Lifestyle of People in Babolsar
Introduction Given that urban tourism is still a relatively new activity, there are few examples that show how chaotic and unplanned growth of tourism can create negative results in social-cultural community and it`s often with irreparable damages to the environment. So integrated planning for tourism emphasize on importance of finding an ongoing and comprehensive way to achieve sustainable and coordinated development with developmental purposes for the country. Urban tourism is one of the main sources of cultural exchange and one of the main sources of cultural exchange and one of the ways to be familiar with customs and the indigenous communities of the host societies around the world. Tourist entering to Babolsar as an attractive and touristic city of Iran has positive and negative effects on social_ cultural development of this city. In this study we tried to determine the effects of social-cultural development of tourism from people sight.
Materials and Methods In the present study which is a type of applied research, we used a survey (method with the aim of descriptive and exploratory survey) and descriptive-analytic method. The population studied in this study is: households living in Babolsar and authorities in relevant organizations. It should be mentioned that there are 13486 households living in this town. We used Cochran method and we have 296 samples that have been selected and question randomly. For authorities, due to not being available completely, we used estimation method and we applied questioner for 50 of them. Finally the result has been analyzed using pearson and Kandall's-b method.
Discussion and Results Urban tourism, interaction of host tourists, creating areas for tourists, visit different attraction and the usage of facilities and services have various effects on urban area. Various experiments have shown that urban tourism has affected both culture of the tourist and the host community and also it protect the cultural heritage of the area. Furthermore, urban tourism has some effects on different parts like music, dance, theater, art and craft, customs, lifestyle and architectural style. With developing of the urban tourism, we can maintain and improve it. Urban tourism has wide social- cultural impact and some of its aspects are summarized in follow: -Development of tourism increases the crime and social aberrations. -Increasing the density and population raises the violating privacy of natives. -Strengthen and supporting the local services such as pulic transportation and health care. -Creation of new facilities and attraction such as cultural and sport facilities. -Tourism emphasizes on housing and eliminates the style of traditional architect. -It develops the cultural relations and strengthens the local union. -It improves the living standards and social services and social facilities (financially).
Conclusions According to goals of study for evaluating the impacts of urban tourism, indicators such as changing lifestyle and consumption patterns in the forms of two items such as using goods and sustainable devices. And changing in the attitude of people towards urban lifestyles, cultural interaction and population dynamics index in the form of increasing the public awareness and knowledge of people towards their living environment, responsibility towards tourism, introducing the unique local customs, improving health, education, housing and other services, increasing the public participation in the preparation and implementation of tourism project and supporting the dynamic and expansion of local customs and finally the index of increase in incentive to retention and reduce in migration in the form of increasing the motivation of young people and employment in the city in their city, expansion of security and respecting terms and conditions, increasing the sense of citizens to their country, increasing the intensive of retention among people, reducing in migration of people to cities have been analyzed. Our study has been performed among 22 neighborhoods in Babolsar. The results of the survey are the base on Pierson and Kendall-b method. Studies conducted in the city of Babolsar show that this city has a high tourism potential whereas in first half of the year there is not much tourists visit this city. Tourism in Babolsar has effects on different parts such a economy, social and environment that some of them has positive aspect and some of them has negative aspects. The result of significant study at the level of 0.05 shows that 5 from 14 indices are affected by tourism: increased intensive of young people to live and work in their own city, extending security and observing the rule in the city, increase in awareness and knowledge of people with respect to their living environment, improving health, education, housing and other services to support the dynamic and expansion of local customs. In addition to the above indices, authorities believe that increase in sense of citizen to their origin is important, too.