توسعه پایدار گردشگری مجموعهای از اصول، خطمشیها و روشهای مدیریتی برای ترسیم مسیر توسعهی گردشگری به گونهای است که رفاه جوامع انسانی و سلامت اکوسیستمهای طبیعی در دراز مدت تضمین شود. در این میان برداشتهای متعددی از این مفهوم و شیوه تحقق آن وجود دارد که خود معلول پارادایمهای فکری و دیدگاههای مختلف صاحبنظران است. آشنایی دقیقتر دانشپژوهان و مدیران اجرایی گردشگری ایران با این مکتبهای فلسفی و پارادایمهای فکری مطرح در این زمینه امری ضروری است. به همین منظور این نوشتار میکوشد پس از مطالعهی تطبیقی مکتبهای فلسفی ایدهآلیسم و پراگماتیسم، رویکرد «توسعه پایدار گردشگری» را از منظر این دو دیدگاه مورد بررسی و مداقه قراردهد. این مطالعهی تطبیقی ضمن کمک به بسط دایره معرفتشناسی نظام علمی گردشگری میتواند به ترویج روحیه نقادی نسبت به خطمشیها و برنامهریزیهای توسعه پایدار گردشگری کشور منجرشود.
An Investigation into Sustainable Tourism Development from Idealistic and Pragmatic Perspectives
Abstract Extended Sustainable tourism development is a set of principles, policies and management methods which project the tourism development path in a way that environmental resources (including natural, man-made, and cultural features) of the destination are conserved for future developments. Concerning this concept and its implementation method, numerous and various perceptions have been created as a result of the different viewpoints and paradigms. Therefore, studying and comparing philosophical schools can be beneficial since it may help advance understanding and develop critical thinking about sustainable tourism development policies and planning. Introduction Generally, philosophical schools have been developed as a result of philosophers' different views towards philosophy, which bring about differences in principles and, therefore, the creation of different schools. Each philosophy is the outcome of a context and a number of conditions. Such conditions include both external factors like environmental, social, political, and cultural elements, and internal factors such as talent, mental creativity, and personal presumptions of philosophers of a school. Therefore, studying a subject from the viewpoint of different schools may bring about different and even opposing results, which can broaden the insight of scholar regarding the studied subject. Among others, the concept of "sustainable development" has entered many of the development studies in general, as well as tourism studies in particular, since the late 1980s. Sustainable tourism development may be one of the most important concepts discussed in tourism literature during the past two decades. This paper aims to study the concept of sustainable tourism development from the perspective of two philosophical schools, namely idealism and pragmatism; where the former favors mind and reason over material and natural phenomena, and deems truth as existing in the minds of people rather than in the physical and material world. While the latter, which is of great importance as a practical and realistic philosophy, emphasizes experience and empirical findings and truths as having convincing results. Materials and Methods To this end, the theoretical basis has been studied qualitatively via documentary research and content analysis, where multiple meaning can be inferred from a text. Such an analysis can be regarded a research methodology which contributes to content interpretation of the data. Moreover, adopting a comparative approach, this paper compares and contrasts the perspectives of idealism and pragmatism concerning sustainable tourism development, and presents its finding in separate tables. Discussion and Results The results of the study indicated that each of these viewpoints have strength and weaknesses in their objectives. Therefore, one may claim that the stands of these two schools may be used complimentarily, since incorporating the principles of both schools as well as avoiding highlighting one and leaving the other seem to be the most suitable option for developing sustainable tourism. However, the approach of pragmatism to planning and decision-making is more flexible than usual planning approaches such as rational planning and formal strategic planning models. Pragmatists use communicative planning approaches like progressive planning, consensus-building, and collaborative planning. This approach presents certain practical reforms for building consensus and collaborative decision-making processes. The concepts are not fixed in pragmatic approach; rather they are flexible and fluid and their features are due to change. According to this viewpoint, the correctness of a decision is evaluated by the extent to which it contributes to the goals, not its closeness to the reality. In his book Pragmatism, William James states that the pragmatists differ from the non-pragmatists in their definition of truth. When pragmatists talk about truth they merely consider their effectiveness; while non-pragmatists' perception of truth deals with the entity itself. Besides, pragmatism offers an effective instrument for integrating environmental implications into business decisions. Employing pragmatic decision-making causes observing environmental issues in decisions and creates competitive advantage. Incorporating pragmatic moral principles, managers can project better results for their company and the environment in which they operate.