در سالهای اخیر نقشی که منظر شهری در جذب گردشگر دارد، مورد توجه پژوهشگران حوزهی گردشگری و برنامهریزی شهری برخی کشورها بهخصوص کشورهای پیشرفته که دارای پیشزمینههای توسعهی گردشگری شهری هستند، قرار گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر فتح بابی است در مسیر تأکید بر اهمیت گردشگری شهری و نقشی که منظر شهری میتواند در جذب گردشگر و رونق گردشگری شهری داشته باشد. با توجه به اینکه پژوهشهای حوزهی گردشگری شهری دارای واگرایی روششناختی بوده است و از سویی تأکید بر نقش منظر شهری در گردشگری شهری در پژوهشها کمتر به چشم خورده است، در این مقاله بر آن بودهایم که با مطالعهی جدیدترین ادبیات علمی در این حوزه، با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و مطالعات اسنادی، بر وجوه اهمیت نقش منظر شهری در گردشگری شهری تأکید کنیم و مناسبترین روشها و ابزارها را برای مطالعهی نقش منظر شهری در گردشگری شهری معرفی نماییم. نتایج حاصل، گویای این مطلب است که به دلیل تأثیری که منظر شهری بر تصویر ذهنی گردشگران از شهر، تصمیم به بازدید از مکانهای گردشگری، پیادهروی و پرسهی گردشگران در شهر، تجربهی گردشگران و نیز ارتباط گردشگران با مکان دارد، در مطالعات گردشگری شهری دارای اهمیت فراوانی است. همچنین این مقاله روشن میسازد که در مطالعات دربارهی منظر شهری و نقشی که در گردشگری شهری ایفا میکند، کاربرد روشهای کیفی ارجح است و استفاده از ابزارهای ترکیبی مشاهده، مصاحبه و عکس تحقیقات را با نتایج مطلوبتری همراه میسازد؛ زیرا هم منظر شهری و هم گردشگری شهری ابعاد و ظرافتهای خاصی دارند و پژوهشهای این حوزه در چارچوب روشهای کمی و ابزار پرسشنامه به پاسخ مناسب دست نمییابد.
A Methodology for Urban Landscape Studies in Tourism
Extended Abstract In recent years, the role of urban landscape in producing more tourism revenue has been considered by researchers in the field of tourism and urban planning, especially in developed countries as pioneers of urban tourism development. Current research is a start for emphasizing urban tourism and its role in attracting more tourists and flourishing urban tourism. Research methodologies in this area had divergence of approach and the role of urban landscape in urban tourism has not been emphasized. This paper is an attempt to study the most current scientific literature in this area and present the result of their analysis in a descriptive, analytic, and documentary. The goal was to present the most suitable methods and tools for studying the role of urban tourism in urban tourism. The result is that urban landscape has impacts on the mental image of tourists, their experience, and tourists’ relation with location. The results of study also show that the applications of qualitative methods are preferred. Using observational methods, interview, and picture provides more desirable results. Urban landscape and urban tourism have different dimensions that can be studied by these methods. Usually quantitative methods and questioners do not provide suitable responses. Introduction Cities with more desirable landscapes are more successful in attracting more tourists. Urban landscape has not been considered by urban planners as it should be. Urban landscape could have important impacts in urban tourism in different dimensions. It is one of the issues that should be considered in urban management and urban planning of a city. Familiarity with the methods and tools of research in this area and the importance of urban landscape justifies this study. In terms of a well known methodology, there is lack of a well performed methodology used in Iran. Urban landscapes are cultural assets of cities. Therefore, tourists have interest and attention about them. Visual understanding gained from observation leads to social and cultural understanding. Current research is an attempt to respond to the following questions and have a share in presenting the right methodology in tourism literature in the country. Research questions are: 1- What is the importance of urban landscape in attracting tourists and urban tourism? 2- What are the most suitable methods and tools for the studying the role of urban landscape in urban tourism? Materials and Methods Research method for this current study was descriptive-analytic. The most recent studies were reviewed to find the best methodology for studying about urban landscape and tourism. Discussion and Results On the basis of this study, urban landscape was found important because: 1- It creates mental images for tourists about the city. 2- It affects on the tourists decision to visit the city again. 3- It affects on tourist experience from a city. 4- Tourist’s relation with a location. Review of study show that use of interview is preferred compared with other data collection methods. Studies of landscape have complexities that cannot be studied with other tools and quantitative methods. Since tourists have precise and analytic look, they can consider the hidden aspects of a landscape. Understanding the tourist’s impression can be revealed with interview. Interview with the tourists can have challenges too. Since tourists are on vacation and are resting, they might be willing to participate in research and might not answer the questions. The other challenge is that tourists are suspicious about the interview intentions. One of the methods used is the formation of focus groups and researcher can guide the discussions. Using focus groups can help to have better and clearer understanding of the tourists’ image. Since urban landscape can be studied visually, use of pictures is very useful. Some researchers do the interview and pictures are used during the interview. The interpretation of pictures can reveal the landscape characteristics. Pictures can be analyzed to reach to a typology. Use of a combination of tools (pictures, and interview) can provide more confident information. To analyze pictures, beside researcher’s judgment, Max View software can also be used. Conclusions Results of study show that the most suitable methods for the study of urban landscape and its role in tourism are qualitative methods, interpretive approaches and use of combined tools such as observation, interviews, and analyzing pictures. Considering the fact that urban landscape studies are in their early stages, the experience of international studies summarized in this paper are recommended. It is also recommended that this subject is studied in different cities in Iran for the use of decision makers in the field of urban tourism.