گروه علوم سیاسی دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه
در این مقاله به منظور شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر توسعهی گردشگری بینالمللی در ایران، رویکردها و مدلهای مختلف مطرح و بررسی شده است. روش به کار گرفته شده در این پژوهش، از نظر هدف کاربردی، از نظر نوع دادهها کمی و از نظر نحوهی گردآوری دادهها، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی است. جامعهی آماری در این پژوهش، مدیران و کارشناسان ارشد سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری هستند که از نظرها و دیدگاههای آنها استفاده شده است. روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه نیز با استفاده از دیدگاه خبرگان و نیز آزمون آلفای کرونباخ مورد سنجش قرار گرفته و تأیید شده است. در مرحلهی بعد بر اساس مدل مفهومی پژوهش، سؤالها و فرضیههای پژوهش، با استفاده از یک پرسشنامهی محققساخته، گویههای مستخرجه در نمونهی آماری تحقیق مورد پرسش قرار گرفت. در بخش آمار توصیفی، توصیف دادهها در دو بخش متغیرهای زمینهای و متغیرهای اصلی با استفاده از شاخصهای فراوانی مطلق، فراوانی نسبی، میانگین، انحراف معیار و واریانس در جداول ارائه گردیده و در بخش آمار استنباطی از آزمونهای تفاوت میانگین استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان داد بین دیدگاه مدیران در ارتباط با عوامل مؤثر بر جذب گردشگر بر حسب متغیرهای زمینهای تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد.
The Role of Contextual Factors in the Promotion of International Tourism: A Review
(Case Study of the Approach of the Managers and Experts of the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization)
Introduction The aim of this paper is to discuss and examine the various approaches to tourism and to identify factors that can effectively contribute to the promotion of international tourism in Iran. For the purpose of this paper the author has adopted an applied, quantitative and descriptive research methodology with regards to the objectives, the type of data and the collection of the required data, respectively. This has been done by drawing upon the views and expertise of the authorities of the Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The data collected through the questionnaire were put to test and thoroughly examined on the basis of the conceptual model and the hypothesis of the research. As regards the descriptive statistics, they have been examined and analyzed by dividing them into contextual and main variables and by resorting to such statistical methods and indices as absolute and relative frequency, mean and variance and with respect to deductive statistics resort has been made to the multi variable correlation and regression analysis and Fisher’s analysis of variance.
Materials and Methods The population or sample of respondants in this research was senior managers and experts of Iranian Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicraft Organization. The totality of their number amounts to 750 persons. The questionnaire was distributed among 260 experts and 257 questionnairea were returned back to the researcher. Concerning the method of collecting and analyzing data, in this research field, it is to be noted that the type and method of data gathering is descriptive and inferential. In the area of descriptive statistics, the description of the data in the two sections of contextual and principal variables has been provided using the methods such as frequency indicator, relative frequency, mean, standard deviation and variance. In the area of inferential statistics the methods of correlation and multi-variable regression as well as Fisher's exact test have been used.
Discussion and Result It is found that there are meaningful correlation and significant relationship between the development of international tourism and all the examined factors that aresocial and cultural factors, climatic and touristic factors, managerial and political factors, as well as new information and communication technologies. The Average age of the respondents in this study is 34/5 and the highest frequency is for B.A. degree level among experts, technicians and administrators. To assess the impact of socio-cultural factors on the development of international tourism in the country five items measured on a Likert scale of five options have been used, where the score of 5 indicates high impact and score of 1 indicates low impact. The difference in this case is the way that all married people is higher than average.The respondents were classified based on their age, level of education, gender and maritial status. It is found that there are some differences between the average of different groups of age and education. However, this difference in the case of level of education is only meaningful in relation to the socio-cultural factors and in the case of age it is only meaningful in relation to managerial and political factors. Nevertheless, the amount of F in thees cases demonstrates that the mean differences are negligible.
Conclusion In the light of whatever has been discussed, it becomes clear that concerned authorities and experts, based on the contextual factors inter allia their age, level of education, gender and maritial status, have divers perspectives on the meaningful correlation between cultural and social factors, climatic conditions, tourist attractions, managerial and political factors as well as modern information and communication technologies on one side and the promotion of international tourism in Iran in the age of globalization on the other side. Nevertheless, according to the survey, from among factors effective in promoting international tourism in Iran, there are meaningful differences so that based on the age of respondents, only managerial and political factors, based on their gender, managerial and political factors, climatic conditions as well as cultural and social factors, based on their level of education only cultural and social factors, and based on their maritial status managerial and political factors as well as climatic conditions play a greater role in comparison to other factors. Therefore, in the age of globalization, the Islamic Republic of Iran, besides paying importance to the four factors mentioned in this research, and taking into consideration the contextual situation of managers and stakeholders of touristic sector, should have compiled programmation and plannification for promoting its effectiveness in this regard. Due to the fact that the managers and directors have always key role and functionality for devising the plans and their implementation, the focus, in the plannification, on this target group can be a shortcut way for attracting further tourists at international level.
This road provides a suitable context for facilitating the participation of civil institutions, corporations and different media as well as local authorities at provincial and city levels. Therefore, having a balanced, comprehensive and macro level approach towards international tourism in Iran; devising appropriate social, economic and managerial plans and strategies; paying special attention to the processes and outcomes of the tourism industry, particularly its cultural and social outcomes; taking special interest in tourism marketing at both micro and macro levels; forming investment funds for tourism as well as facilitating the participation of the private sector and local authorities in tourism; emphasizing on the development of the various sectors of the transportation networks and infrastructures in full collaboration with States, individuals, local institutions and domestic and foreign tourism organizations and emphasizing on urban diplomacy or paradiplomacy with the purpose of granting increasing share and place to the creative cities and provinces for playing an effective role in the area of international tourism, can be mentionned from among the priorities of Iranian tourism industry in the age of globalization.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
International tourism, Cultural and social factors, Modern information and communication technologies