از دیرباز مذهب به عنوان یک انگیزه جدایی ناپذیر برای انجام سفر بوده است که به عنوان قدیمی ترین شکل سفرهای غیراقتصادی و مالی به شمار میآید، در حقیقت گردشگر مذهبی ترکیبی از مسافرت و مذهب میباشد. مراسمهای فرهنگی- مذهبی به عنوان رخدادی که سبب میشود تا گردشگر به دنبال کسب تجربه از مذهب و میراث یک کشور سفر کند. مراسم دهه محرم (تاسوعا و عاشورا) در ایران میتواند به عنوان رخدادی مطرح شود که گردشگر، چه داخلی و چه خارجی با بخشی از مذاهب و میراث معنوی فرهنگ جامعه ایرانی آشنا شده و تجربه کسب نماید. هدف از این پژوهش بهره برداری بهینه از مراسم مذهبی تاسوعا و عاشورا در جهت رشد و توسعه شهر تفت و از میان برداشتن موانع موجود بر سرراه گردشگری مذهبی این شهر با استفاده از مدلSWOT میباشد. جهت انجام این پژوهش از روش توصیفی - تحلیلی استفاده شده است و روش جمع آوری دادهها و تحلیل اطلاعات مورد نیاز بصورت اسنادی، پیمایشی و میدانی است. نتایج حاصل، بیانگر آن است که مجاورت و نزدیکی به مراکز جمعتی و مراکز شهری مثل شهر یزد و اجرای مراسم عزاداری با سبکی متمایز از سایر نقاط استان یزد، بهترین نقاط قوت برای گردشگری مذهبی این شهر محسوب می شود. کوتاه بودن مدت اقامت گردشگران درشهر و عدم بازده اقتصادی گردشگران برای شهر از نقاط ضعف منطقه به شمار می روند. در نهایت با توجه به نقاط قوت، ضعف، تهدید و فرصت به تدوین استراتژی های رقابتی – تهاجمی، تنوع، بازنگری و تدافعی اقدام شد.
An Analysis of Strategic Planning of Religious Shia Ceremonies;With a Focus on Potential Religious Ceremony of Moharram Ceremonyin Taft town
Religion has long been an integral reason for travel; it is also considered as the oldest form of non-financial travel.In fact, religious tourism is a combination of travel and religion. Most writers take religious tourism as a part of cultural tourism. Certainly, both are quite different, but these two are tied together, and religion is part of culture. A religious event that encourages people to travel to another country to visit a religious monument of place. Hence the Muharram ceremonies of Ashoora and Tasooa are religious events that can introcuce the relgious tourism potentials of Iran. The ceremonies of Tasooa and Ashoora are commemorated in different ways in Iran. One of the places where it is held is in the city of Taft located in Yazd province. This research is carried out with the aim of optimizing the commemoration of the Ashoora and Tasooa festivals in order to developtourism in Taft and remove the barriers that ar eon the way of religious tourism through using the SWOT model. This evaluation model (that evaluates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) is considered one of the best strategies in tourism planning. Methods of data collection and analysis of required data is carried out through documents and analytical and survey research. The results indicate that proximity to population centers and urban centersare the best strengths for this city's religious tourism. Short duration of tourists‘ stay in the city and lack of tourists' economic outputs are considered to be some of the major weaknesses. Inroduction Religion has long been an integral reason for travel;it is also considered the oldest form of non-financial travel, in fact, religious tourism is a combination of travel and religion. Most writers point that religious tourism is part of cultural tourism. Ofcourse, both are quite different, but these two are tied together, and religion is part of culture. A religious and cultural festival is an event that encourages more travel to a country. In Iran, where most people are followrs of Shia sect of Islam , the first ten days of the month of Muharram is a time of grief and lament for the martyrdom of Husayn. Many pious Muslims wear black during this period to signify the depth of their mourning. During the first ten days of Muharram worshipers gather for assemblies at which a skilled orator recites the story of the Karbala martyrs. The crowds respond with chanting, crying, chest beating, and laments. Traveling storytellers also roam the town during these days armed with a backdrop painted with various scenes from the story of Husayn’s martyrdom. The storytellers pitch camp in various locations, singing and reciting the story while pointing to the appropriate scenes in the painting. Materials and Methods This research aims to servey the shia religious festival in the city of Taft. Methods of data collection and analyses of required data are more based on documents, analyses and survey research. Discussion and Results Attending folk plays, Iranians express their grief and love forHusayn and their commitment to their religious beliefs by taking part in processions.Religious processions may occur before Ashoora, but the largest and mostelaborate ones take place on the tenth of Muharram. Floats or live tableaux representingscenes from the story of Husayn’s death often accompany these processions.Some of the marchers hold poles between which are strung banners,representing the standard that Husayn carried into battle. In recent years,however, religious officials in Iran have spoken out against these practices. Still,passion for Husayn runs deep and many people are unwilling to give up their traditions. In this paper, SWOT strategic planning process is used for analyzing the functions of tourism in Taft. A four-stage process of strategic planning including: first, external (opportunities and threats) and internal (strengths and weaknesses) factors evaluation matrix; second, analysis of strategic factors; third, external and internal matrix and matrix of quantitative strategic planning; and finally, appropriate strategies for development of religious tourism in the city of Taft, were designed and presented. Moreover, after consideration of relevant information, the major external and internal factors in the matrix were evaluated. Conclusions Nowadays, tourism is a dynamic industry that has unique characteristics; they form an important part of economic activities and productions in the developed countries, as well as developed ones. This industry covers all the phenomena and relationships resulting from the interaction of tourists, suppliers and vendors of tourism products, governments and host communities, in the process of attracting and welcoming the tourists. Results and achievements of the tourism industry involve considerable results such as aspects of employment and its impact on development and economic-social functions mentioned in a region or country. Today, the religious tourism is one of the most important kinds which currently has been spread all over the world, and has overcome to weather (climatic) obstacles. Available historical documents from the great civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt and other signs and evidences remained from the pre-historic age indicate that there were numerous religious trips of the thousands of people from past up to now. In fact, mankinds for thousands of years take long journeis in order to do religious practices. Nowadays, religious tourism with all its components and different species, due to specific structural and functional characteristics, has been able to be inside the global tourism, so that its sphere of influence has been spread all over the world. The religious tourists consist of two main groups: first, pilgrims or travelers that their motivation is only the religious affairs, that the time and duration of their station does not depend on their acts; and the second, multi-purpose religious tourists while doing pilgrimage and participate in religious ceremonies, visit other touristic places with a priority given to the pilgrimage in which increases the time and costs of the trip. The results indicated that Taft is near to Yazd city and distinctive style from other parts of this provice, are the best strengths for this city's religious tourism. The enviromenal pollution of tourists and setelmet of most of them in Yazd are the weaknesses. Finally, considering to strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities were presented competitive - aggressive, variation, revision and defensive strategies.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Religious Tourism, Religious carnivals, Taft, SWOT model