خطمشیگذاری گردشگری، در یک نگاه جامع، شامل سه مرحلهی اصلی تدوین، اجرا و ارزیابی است. در مسیر اجرای کامل خطمشی گردشگری، عوامل و شاخصهای متعددی وجود دارند که شناسایی آنها به منظور کارآمد کردن اجرای خطمشی گردشگری اهمیت ویژهای دارد. در این مقاله، با توجه به پژوهشهای انجامشده، دیدگاه دانشمندان مختلف و نظرخواهی از خبرگان صنعت گردشگری کشور، عوامل مؤثر بر اجرای خطمشیهای گردشگری تعیین و بررسی شدند. در جمعبندی ابتدایی، 65 شاخص استخراج شد و طی دو مرحلهی نظرخواهی از پژوهشگران دانشگاهی، این تعداد به 40 شاخص تقلیل و تعدیل یافت. تعداد 83 نفر از پژوهشگران دانشگاهی به سؤالهای این پرسشنامه پاسخ دادند. با توجه به تحلیلهای آماری صورتگرفته به کمک نرمافزارهای SPSS و LISREL، پرسشهای تحقیق بررسی شدند و مدل نهایی این تحقیق متشکل از هفت عامل که در دنباله خواهد آمد، پیشنهاد شد: 1. توجه به ویژگیهای رفتاری و شخصیتی مجریان؛ 2. نظام اداری و بوروکراسی؛ 3. هدفگذاری و تدوین صحیح خطمشی؛ 4. تخصص و مهارت مجریان؛ 5. گروههای هدف و استفادهکنندگان؛ 6. حمایت از سوی مراجع قانونی–حقوقی؛ و سرآخر 7. انتخاب ابزار مناسب و منابع لازم برای اجرای خطمشی.
Prioritizing the Factors Influencing the Implementation of Tourism Policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Tourism policy making simply can be divided into three main phases of formulation, implementation and evaluation. Implementation as one of the main phases of policy making became the focus of researchers and scientists’ attention since 1970. There are different variables and factors in the process of implementing the determined policies in which recognizing them is of high importance for effective implementation of tourism. Since many of the previously done researched on policy implementation were in the field of public policy and its implementation barriers, conducting this research can enrich the related literature and facilitate the implementation process. By referring to different pieces ofresearchpreviouslydone and considering thoughts of scientists and by asking the viewpoints of the experts of tourism policy, factors influencing the implementation of tourism policies were determined and subsequently were used for designing the research questionnaire. 61 variables were diminished into 40 ones after asking the viewpoints of the experts during two phases. Total number of 83 experts who were mostly university teachers and graduate students as well as the managers of Iran’s Cultural Resources, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization answered the questions of the above mentioned questionnaire. Research questions were examined by use of SPSS and LISREL software and subsequently the final model of this research project composing of the following components was proposed: 1. Factors related to behavior and personality of the executive managers, 2. Factors of bureaucratic and administrative system, 3. Factors related to goals determination and policy formulation, 4. Factors related to skills and proficiency of the executive managers, 5. Factors related to stakeholders and target groups, 6. Factors related to support from legal and juridical organizations and 7. Factors related to the appropriate tools and the required resources for policy implementation. Keywords: policy making, tourism policy making, policy process, policy implementation, five-year economic, social and cultural plans.
Introduction There are some pieces of research on tourism policy, policy analysis and factors influencing the implementation process. Due to extension of studying planning, policy making and tourism, reviewing and examining such a complex and incoherent literature is difficult (Scott, 2011. P.6). the importance of this article is somehow linked to the importance of studying tourism policy. Goeldner and Ritchie (2009) enumerated the functions that tourism policy has:
It defines the rules of the game- the terms under which tourism operators must function. It sets out activities and behaviors that are acceptable for visitors. It provides a common direction and guidance for all tourism stakeholders within a destination. It facilitates consensus around specific strategies and objectives for a given destination. It provides a framework for public/private discussions of the role and contributions of the tourism sector to economy and to society in general. It allows tourism to interface more effectively with other sectors of the economy (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2009. P. 415-16).
Material and Methods In order to determine the factors influencing the implantation of tourism policies in Iran, different policy models which could be used as the basis were examined. In this regard, a model proposed by RezghiRostami (2004) in the field of Industrial Policies of Iran was extracted. The model had seven factors which encompassed the variables influencing the implementation of tourism policies. Reviewing the other models and the related literature resulted in recognizing 65 influential variables. These variables were modified into 40 after considering the thoughts and comments of tourism policy experts. These variables were actually the questions of the research questionnaire with the scale of 0 to 10 (0, extremely unimportant to 10, extremely important). 83 tourism policy experts, both from academic society and tourism organizations) answered the questionnaire. Discussions and Results The results of confirmative factor analysis by the use of LISREL, such as T-value, Standardized Coefficient as well as Goodness of Fit Indexes confirmed that there are 7 factors that are influential in the implementation of tourism policies of Islamic Republic of Iran. These factors with regard to the priority of them are: 1. the characteristics of the executives, 2. administrative and bureaucratic system, 3. skills and knowledge of the executives, 4. plain goal setting and appropriate policy formulation, 5. target groups and stakeholders, 6. legal and civil support and 7. appropriate instruments and resources. Conclusions With regard to the results of confirmative factor analysis, the above mentioned variables were proposed for implementation of tourism policies. Considering the prioritizing of these factors as a result of this article is useful in successful implementation of tourism policies. Moreover, the following suggestions can be proposed:
Formulating the tourism policies in the ground of micro economic policies and considering the interrelationship between tourism policies and the other fields such as education, social welfare, employment and etc. Promoting social trust can also be useful for implementation of tourism policies with regard to increase in investment of private sector. More attention should be paid to staffing and skills of executive managers. More flexible burucratic systems are also needed. Considering the requirements of stakeholders also can facilitate the process of implementing tourism policies. Appropriate instruments and resources as undeniable factors in implementation of tourism policies.