امروزه مراکز شهری گردشگرپذیر با پذیرش نقشهای جدید از جمله نقش تجاری، موقعیتهای جدید و بهتری را از نظر جذب گردشگر به دست آوردهاند. تجارب جهانی نشان داده است که صرف داشتن جاذبههای طبیعی در درازمدت مناطق گردشگری را با مشکل مواجه میسازد. لذا، شهرهای مرزی با استفاده از مزیت نسبی خود، از جمله کانونهای جدید جذب گردشگر و رونق اقتصاد محلی شدهاند. شهر جوانرود در طی یک دههی اخیر با توجه به احداث بازارچهی مرزی در آن مقصد بسیاری از گردشگران بوده است. این پژوهش با بررسی نقش بازارچه به بررسی آثار آن از ابعاد مختلف بر ساکنان شهر پرداخته است. روش پژوهش مبتنی بر رویکردهای توصیفی تحلیلی که با پیمایش میدانی جهت تکمیل پرسشنامهها همراه شده است. دادهها از طریق نرمافزار SPSS پردازش شدهاند و همچنین از آزمونهای آماری برای تحلیل بهرهگیری شده است. نتایج نشان میدهد که بازارچهی مرزی هرچند باعثرونق اقتصادی و فرصتهای شغلی شده است؛ امامشکلات محیطی هم همراه داشته است. مهمترین تأثیرات مثبت آن را میتوان به ارتقای استانداردهای زندگی ساکنان شهر در زمینههای مختلف و آشکارترین آثار منفی افزایش گردشگر در تشدید ترافیک و آلودگیهای محیطی بوده است.
Investigating theImpacts of Commercial Tourism on City (Case Study: Javanrood, Kermanshah)
Introduction: Today, tourism industry has a key impotance for economic development in many counties, especially the developing ones (Azmi et al, 2001: 106; Kaffashi, 2009: 142; Mirzaei, 2009:51). The interest in tourism is mainly due to public demand for trade-based journeys, exploration of new places, and visiting holy sites. Iran with its various attractions and capacitiesis one of the richest destinations for tourism; indeed it was ranked tenth by UNSCO. So far the country has been successful in attracting about 0.07 to 0.09 percent of tourism market; it is planned to reach 2 percent in 2025 (Zandi Moghadam, 2009: 4).However, Iran earned only 0.6 percent of total revenues of world tourism market (Shayan et al, 2007: 156). An important and new attractionof tourists is travelling to the western provinces of Azerbaijan, Kurdistan and Kermanshah in order to visit border markets along with other historic and natural sites. There are several border markets in these areas; some of the most famous ones are in Mahabad, Marivan, Baneh and Javanrood. The goods are smuggledinto Iran from neighboring countries and are then sold at much lower prices.The main goods brought in are cosmetics, sanitary materials, audio-visual systems and home appliances.In Javanrood border market there were only 70 small booths in late 1370; but this has now increased into 300 transforming the socio-economic status of the area. This study aims to evaluate the impact of this market on the city of Javanrood and its residents.
2. Methodology of the research The methodology of the research is based on descriptive and analytical approaches and the data were collected by conducting a fieldwork to complete the questionnaires. The data were processed using SPSS and then analyzed via different statistical models. The statistical society of the research included all of the residents of the cityfrom whom 150 samples were selected randomlythrough Cochran model. Additionally,a constructive method was used for obtaining clearer information from the owners of malls and other market executive players. The self-designedquestionnairewas evaluated by several experienced experts;itcontainedeight questions about economic impact, eleven questions targeted socio-cultural impact and nine questions addressed the physio-environmental impacts of tourism development with regard to the growth of commercial business in the city. All of the questions were designed with four answer options on the basis of Likert range. The city of Javanrood is 87 km away from the city of Kermanshahand 1345m above sea level in a mountainous location. The city has a population of 43492 which ranks sixth among the urban centers of the province. The city became the commercial hub of the province as it attracted the highest number of tourists in the region.An important natural asset of the city is its famous cave of Qouri-ghaleh which is in the vicinity of the city; it is about 65 million years old and is considered as one of the seven natural heritage sites of the country.
3. Results and Discussion The research addressed three different impacts of tourism development on the city; namely the economic, socio- cultural and physic-environmental impacts. - The economic impacts of tourism development on the city To investigate the economic impact of tourism on theresident of the city, nine items were used. The results showed that tourism increased income and job opportunities. From this view the city now is the commercial center of the region. Tourism development has, however,had some negative economic impacts. The soaring price of land and housing due to the increasing level of demand which itconsequently enhanced land speculation. The local authorities decided to open new market in the entrance of the city especially in New Year of 1390 which lowered the rent of booths and housing. Findings from T-test showed that tourism had positive and negative impacts on its residents.
- The socio-cultural impact of tourism development Urban tourism in Javanrood impacted differently due to its diverse cultural and social characteristics. The positive effect of tourism is the increase of general knowledge of residents about the value of their cultural assets. And in contrast to other parts of the country, the native residents have attached strongly to their dress customs. The major negative impact of tourism is the increase of drug abuse and alcohol dinking. It should be noticed that these abnormality is not only confined to this area but other parts of the country harmed severely during the recent years. Also tourism has motivated rural urban migration as many rural residents moved to the city in search for better jobs. - The physic-environmental impact of tourism development Perhaps one of the most visible impacts of tourism is the destructive effect of this industry on the environment.The main problems of the city which threaten its sustainability are environmental pollution, traffic congestion; dramatic change of urban land use.There is a significant increase of issued housing permissions which encouraged physical expansion of the city.
4. Conclusion With respect to the given discussion based on field work and data analysis, the residents and market section of the city are satisfied with the prosperity which is brought by tourism; as it created job opportunities and better income. Also tourism development boosted the housing prices and housing rent. The positive impact of tourism is visible on the quality of life, and improvement in the architecture of buildings and promotion public awareness about socio-economic and cultural issues. The main damaging impact of tourism has been the environmental problem in different forms such as noise, air and visual pollution. Based on what was said above, it seems the following recommendation can prevent further negative impact and promote a constructive tourism development in the area: - Education of tourists via useful brochureswhich are handed in to them right before they enter the city. - Promotion of tourismamenities and accommodation such as hotels and inns. - Creating and developing car parking and effective management of police in the city. - Regular control on the market to prevent price hikes. - Preventing unauthorized construction and encroaching on agricultural lands. - Renovating urban furniture to preserve the natural beauty of the city.