امروزه توسعه پایدار گردشگری بهعنوان موتور محرک توسعه و عاملی جهت بهبود کیفیت زندگی جوامع درحال توسعه تلقی میشود. این در حالی است که این جوامع و مقاصد گردشگری آنها در زمانهای مختلف دچار تحولاتی بنیادی میگردند که ممکن است به توسعه یا افول دائمی گردشگری در آن مقاصد منجر شود. بنابراین شناخت چرخهی عمر مقاصد گردشگری میتواند به مدیران و برنامهریزان در رونق بخشی به توسعه پایدار گردشگری کمک کرده و از زوال و ناپایداری گردشگری جلوگیری کند. از اینرو، مقاله حاضر درصدد پاسخگویی به این سوال کلیدی است که مناطق روستایی با پتانسیل گردشگری تاریخی- فرهنگی بر اساس مدل ارزیابی چرخهی حیات در چه مرحله از توسعه قرار دارند؟ بدین منظور مقاله با هدف توسعه روش عملی ارزیابی و سنجش مراحل توسعه مقاصد گردشگری در 7 روستای تاریخی- فرهنگی کشور در یک محدوده زمانی مشخص و با استفاده از روش شناسی توصیفی- تحلیلی و پیمایش و نظر خواهی از مردم، مسولان و گردشگران به ارزیابی و اندازهگیری در روستاهای مورد مطالعه پرداخته است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل دادههای گردآوری شده از روشهای تحلیل کمی و کیفی در چارچوب مراحل چرخهی حیات گردشگری استفاده شده است. نتایج بهدست آمده بیانگر این مطلب است که در مجموع روستاهای مورد مطالعه بر اساس گامهای شش گانه مدل چرخهی حیات، با میانگین کل امتیاز 444/0 در مرحله درگیری و گذار به مرحله توسعه میباشند. لذا فرایند گردشگری در روستاهای مورد مطالعه با افزایش فعالیتهای گردشگری همراه است که در صورت مدیریت و برنامهریزی مناسب میتوان از اثرات ناپایدار گردشگری در این روستاها کاسته و به تداوم حیات گردشگری روستایی کمک کرد.
Tourism Development Procedure Assessment of Cultural–Historical Villages by Using Tourism Destination Lifecycle Model
Abstract Nowadays sustainable tourism development is considered a driving force to develop and improve quality of life in developing communities. Simultaneous to tourism development that has been caused inconceivable changes in political, economic and cultural conditions as well as human life style and tourism destinations infrastructures. The changes in these destinations take place periodically. The above mentioned changes normally make the way for constant boost or decline in tourism in these destinations. Doing so, to have a complete understanding of a destination lifecycle can contribute the managers and planners to improve sustainable tourism and prevent instability, decline and imbalanced development. Henceforth, the essay is to provide a sustainable answer to this key question: what level of development the rural regions of historical and cultural potentials are in based on the Lifecycle Assessment Model. Toward developing a practical assessment method and evaluating the tourism development process in seven historical and cultural villages of Iran in a specific time span, this essay has been applied analytic-descriptive method and has made enquiries from people, officials and tourists in the target villages .The above-mentioned results reveal that all target villages based on the Lifecycle Assessment Model six stages, all villages are on the right path of development with overall score of 0/444. Doing so, tourism process in target villages accompany with a considerable increase in tourism related activities and in case of sound management and proper planning, it would be possible to curb unstable and counter-productive tourism development effects in the target villages and pave the way for rural tourism survival.
Introduction Life cycle concept has been taken from biology, and as a model it has been applied in product, service and tourism destination development as well in tourism economics, management, planning and literature. The model has made great changes in a scientific concept in planning and development management of destinations and products. The concept is also closely connected to economics. Due to this planning, management and tourism challenges automatically have resulted in formation of Lifecycle Model for analysis and clarification of dynamic mechanism of tourism development, illumination of internal as well as external development components, pattern and treatment of tourism development system, as it would be possible to analyze periodical changes in tourism process. There to have a real assessment of tourism lifecycle in historical and cultural village makes the way to intensify tourism benefits and prolong tourism lifecycle as well to tackle it's challenges and demerits through long-term planning based on Rural tourism sustain able development features and principles, not to pay due consideration to lifecycle management in cultural and historical villages will lead them to crisis. On this basis, the key factor in this research is to clarify the current situation of tourism based on lifecycle Model in historical and cultural villages. This recognition will help us to elongate the tourism lifecycle in the villages with historical and cultural potentials. So the most important question of this survey forms on the basis of the current status of tourism lifecycle in above-mentioned villages in other word's in which stages of tourism these villages are? Materials and Methods This essay research method is descriptive analytic and it’s based on library and documentary survey, field study and data analysis with using lifecycle model. As it was mentioned in the research literature, each tourism destination in its development process has different stages including, exploration, intervention, involvement, stability, decline and finally decline or revitalize that is called destination lifecycle. Its worth to mention that in order to put the survey question into operation 39 question has been used. These questions have been completed by local people of villages, officials, local reporters and tourists of those villages. The territory under study was the whole of country the sample villages under survey were 7 historical and cultural villages (Masouleh, Kandovan, Uraman, Takht, Abyaneh, Meimand, Anbouh and Laft).
Discussion and Results After calculating indicatives score, final scores of these indicatives that is one number for each village has been achieved. It's worth to mention that here the final scores calculated for each village is among tourism lifecycle stages and shows the current status of villages in different stages of village normal lifecycle. The obtained results reveal that creation and development of tourism in the surveyed villages was not consistent and these villages in different stages of tourism comparing to other surveyed studied. So as some of these villages like Masouleh with obtaining the highest score of one is at stability level. Kandovan village among lifecycle stage with obtaining0/736 is in growth stage. Further than obtained scores it's possible to assert Abyaneh, Meimand and Uraman with 0/483, 0/364 and 0/3268 respectively are in second stage of lifecycle means in intervention and local people participation. While Laft and Abyaneh with 0/184 and 0/001 scores respectively are in the first stage of lifecycle - exploration stage. Also, obtained results are decided for all villages. Those villages with score 0/444 are in intervention or involvement stage of their tourism. Henceforth it is required to take proper measure to prevent in consistency and instability in tourism development and strengthen sustainable growth.
Conclusions Based on the theoretical literature, making use of lifecycle concept can help realize the current position of tourism in a destination and more efficient preparation and measures as, recognition of the village development stage It would be easier to provide for the required measures for getting into next stage of its lifecycle. In case there is a well organized plan to their maturity. Doing so, they continue Survey was conducted from officials, tourists and local people through considering indicatives for assessment, at different stages of Butler lifecycle. Therefore adopting proper planning it would be possible to strengthen stabilizing factor of concern in sustainable development and fight with negative elements. Furthermore, the results reveal that Butler tourism lifecycle model can determine the current status of tourism in destinations and concerned villages.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Sustainable Tourism, Rural Tourism, Lifecycle, Cultural-historical villages of Iran