در این پژوهش نقش خودکارآمدی و حمایت اجتماعی در رفتارهای محیطزیستی ساکنان بومی دربند مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. هدف از این مطالعه، تعیین نقش خودکارآمدی و ابعاد حمایت اجتماعی ساکنان بومی در حفاظت از محیطزیست محل سکونتشان در قبال توسعهی بیبرنامهی گردشگری منطقهی دربند است. فرضیهی تحقیق از این قرار است که (حمایت اجتماعی ساکنان بومی در ارتباط مستقیم با حفاظت محیطزیست در توسعهی گردشگری است) در این پژوهش 80 نفر (60مرد، 20زن) از ساکنان بومی حضور داشتند. پس از نمونهگیری توضیحات مورد نیاز شرکتکنندگان ارائه گردید و پس از آن پرسشنامه بهصورت حضوری در اختیارشان قرار گرفت. ابزار این پژوهش شامل مقیاس خودکارآمدی (GSS) و مقیاس حمایت اجتماعی (MSPSS) و پرسشنامهی خودساختهی حفاظت از محیطزیست بود. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشاندهندهی این مسئله است که بین خودکارآمدی و رفتارهای زیستمحیطی رابطهی مثبت و معنادار وجود دارد (05/0>P) علاوه بر این، در هنگام گسترش بیبرنامهی گردشگری دسترسی به حمایت اجتماعی (01/0>P) با تخریب محیطزیست رابطهی معکوس و معنادار دارد. بهنظر میرسد که رضایتمندی از حمایت اجتماعی بهخاطر تأثیر مستقیمی که بر روی انسان دارد، ازگسترش رفتارهای نامناسب محیطزیستی پیشگیری مینماید. پژوهش حاضرمیتواند زمینه ساز انجام پژوهشهایی در زمینه همگام سازی رشد و توسعهی گردشگری همسو با حفاظت از محیطزیست در مسیر حمایتهای اجتماعی باشد.
Environmental Protection in the Face of a Lack in Tourism Development Program
(Case Study: Tehran, Darband Area)
Abstract In this study, the role of self-efficacy and social support in the environmental behavior of residents in Darband area was evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of local residents in protecting the environment in and around their dwelling places in response to the region's unplanned tourism developments. A total of 80 local residents attended a meeting organized for the purpose of this study, 60 male and 20 female. The participants completed a questionnaire designed in line with General Social Survey (GSS) principles and assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support(MSPSS)Scale. The results of this study indicate a positive and significant relationship between self-efficacy and environmental behavior (0/05> P). Moreover, there is a reverse relationship between the impact of unplanned tourism development program and social support (0/01>P) with a significant negative relationship. The perception of social support has a direct impact on propels and appears to prevent inappropriate environmental behavior. Research could pave the way allowing tourism development compatible with Environmental protection which has general social support.
Introduction Established tourism development follows planning, management, knowledge and application phases. This model requires basic knowledge and the most efficient deployment of human capital. The main focus of this article is to determine suitable tourism planning and development patterns in the absence of a formal state organized plan. According to Joseph Astygltz the new paradigm of development is: "If global capitalism is democratic and economically stable included totally holistic approach to development will be required. Such an approach should include social, ethical, environmental, economic". The development of tourism close involvement of local communities and individuals, as a fundamental aspect, self-efficacy and social support are examined and discussed in this article. The hypothesis is social support of local residents in tourism development has a direct impact on the environment.
Materials and Methods The population of the study was 80 local area residents of Tehran, 60 males and 20 females. After the initial selection, participants were given a questionnaire with necessary explanations. The Questionnaire was based on Schwartz and Jerusalem efficacy (1980) translated into 28 languages. The scale has 20 items and two separate subscales and social self-efficacy with a scale of 10 items. Questions are scored on a scale of 4 degrees. Higher scores indicate greater self-efficacy. Reliability and validity of general self-efficacy scale is based on Rajabi (2006) developed among Iranian students. Finally, the aspects of environmental protection covered in the questionnaire are in line with Rajabi’s statements with the items on self, reliability and validity verified by experts.
Discussion and Results Based on the results, self-efficacy, social support total score and its subscales of social support from friends, family and other important people to conduct environmental protection show significant positive relationship. Considering that all variables have a significant correlation with each other. The relationships are in the expected direction. Regression analyses was deployed for testing the hypothesis. Stepwise regression analyses predicts the behavior of other individuals protect the environment through social protection. Initially, these variables show 20% variance in self-care behaviors. There are substantial observations and 24% of the variance in self-care behavior and social support is explained by a subscale of self-efficacy. Another important contribution of the individual is the reduced scale of social support in the environmental protection and behavior.
Conclusions Results indicate that there are significant relationship between self-efficacy, social support and environmental protection behaviors. The results show significant correlation which explains the importance of self-efficacy and social support subscale, 24% of the variance in environmental behavior in responses by local residents. The results show consistent correlations but no similar research on the topic has been conducted which examines the relationship between self-efficacy, social support behaviors and environmental protection. From this aspect, this research is innovative and ground breaking. According to research, Rajabi, 2006 and Myrsamiee and Abraham, 2008, it can be said almost all social network relations, act as a buffer against stressful events. Social relations reduce the impact on the individual who is not immune to the consequences of stressful events and in its absence can be stressful for everyone. Based on research (Ghaemi Asl and Salehi, 2013) results show that the positive impact of new attitudes towards environmental behavior. The linear relationship means that as people gain better attitude towards the environment, there will have the same degree of responsible approach to environmental concerns. Finally, the findings can be explained based on the theory of Bandura which self efficacy is a major factor in people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in stressful situations and increases the ability of people to deal successfully with various challenging situations.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
self, social support, Tourism Development, environmental protection