امروزه، صنعت گردشگری بهعنوان یکی از جذابترین و درآمدزاترین صنایع در دنیا بهحساب میآید و تبلیغات در این حوزه نقش بهسزایی دارد. یکی از گستردهترین و ارزانترین رسانهها برای تبلیغات، اینترنت است. از طریق تبلیغات اینترنتی میتوان با هزینهی بسیار کم به مشتریان بالقوه دست یافت و ردیابی مشتریان نیز آسانتر است. با توجه به اندک بودن تعداد تحقیقات دربارهی تبلیغات اینترنتی و صنعت گردشگری، مقالهی حاضر با ارایهی مدلی ترکیبی و برگرفته از ادبیات موضوع موجود به بررسی عوامل مؤثر تبلیغات بنرهای تعاملی- که از متداولترین و ارزانترین نوع تبلیغات اینترنتی است- در صنعت گردشگری پرداخته است. با توجه به این که این مقاله به بررسی اثرگذاری تبلیغات بنرهای تعاملی برای جذب گردشگران خارجی میپردازد؛ بنابراین جامعهی آماری، گردشگران بینالمللی هستند که تجربهی استفاده از اینترنت را دارند. برای دسترسی به این جامعهی آماری، پرسشنامه به شیوهی اینترنتی و از طریق انجمنهای مجازی و فرومهای مرتبط با گردشگری توزیع شده است. همچنین، بهدلیل اینکه دسترسی به تمام جامعهی آماری با احتمال یکسان امکانپذیر نیست؛ اما احتمال دسترسی به هر یک از اعضای فرومهای انتخاب شده یکسان است، بنابراین پیمایش اینترنتی، مبتنی بر نمونهگیری غیراحتمالی و خودگزینشی است. همچنین، چون فهرست کامل افراد جامعه در دسترس نیست؛ روش نمونهگیری بهصورت غیرتصادفی است. در کل، 386 پاسخنامهی معتبر بهدست آمد که با استفاده از مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری، نتایج حاصله نشان داد که متغیرهای «نگرش مثبت به تبلیغات»، «درجهی درگیری کالا»، «طراحی محتوای تبلیغات» و «وبسایت انتخابی برای نشر تبلیغ» بهطور مستقیم و «میزان برخورد و توجه کاربر به تبلیغات» بهطور غیرمستقیم از طریق متغیر میانجی «نگرش مثبت به تبلیغات» بر «اثرگذاری تبلیغات اینترنتی» تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد.
Analyzing the Effective Factors in Interactive Banner Advertising on Tourists
Abstract Currently, tourism industry is considered as one of the most attractive and profitable industries in the world and advertising in this field has an important role. One of the widest and cheapest advertising media is Internet. Through Internet advertising, we can achieve the potential tourists with lower cost and tracking tourists in this way is much easier. Since a small number of studies have been done about the effectiveness of online advertising in tourism industry, the present study provides an evolved model to evaluate the effective factors of interactive banners and their effectiveness on attracting the potential tourists and to investigate the relationships between these factors.
Introduction Tourism industry is a major source of foreign exchange income and also a causer of job opportunities in many developing countries. For developing this industry and attracting tourists from around the world, we require global marketing. Travel packages are naturally intangible and cannot be physically seen and evaluated before purchase and cannot be standardized in relation to quality and expectations, so purchasing them is very risky from the consumers’ perspective and making a purchase decision needs to process the information (Huang et. al, 2010). One of the most effective tools in marketing is Internet which is used in various sections and has different applications. In tourism, for example, from searching information about tourism destinations to booking flight and hotel, all can be done by Internet. One of the most important applications of the Internet is Internet advertising and among the various kinds of Internet advertising, banners - especially interactive banners - which have high view rate, are considered as the most common form of Internet advertising due to the low cost of their design and presentation. Therefore, in this study we examine the effectiveness of the factors “contact and attention to ads”, “advertising content design”, “positive attitude toward ads”, “degree of product involvement”, “website selection for publishing ads” and “advertising effects” on tourists in an evolved model and analyze the relationships among them.
Materials and Methods This study is an applied research and is based on descriptive – survey method. Given that this paper examines the effects of interactive banners to attract foreign tourists, so the population is international tourists who have the experience of using Internet. The questionnaires were distributed through Internet and a 5-point Likert scale was used in the process of data collection. Since the e-questionnaires were distributed through virtual communities and forums associated with tourism and travel packages, some people of the population are likely not to be the member of any of these communities and forums and with respect to the issue that the access to certain tourism websites is impossible, so the access to the whole population with equal probability is not possible. But the possibility of access to each member of the selected forums is the same, so the web survey is based on self-selection and non-probability sampling. Since a full list of the population is not available, sampling method is a non-random sampling. As a whole, 386 reliable answer sheets have been received. Reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, whose value is equal to 96.1 percent. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through AMOS 18.0 was used to examine the 10 hypotheses of this study.
Discussion and Results The results of descriptive statistics show that the highest percentage of respondents is related to males (57.8%). 73.6% of respondents have a bachelor's degree, or master's degree level and/or above. The most frequency of using internet per day is related to the time interval of 1-3 hours. The majority of the respondents (88.3%) have been using the internet more than 5 years. The significance level of all of the hypotheses is less than 0.01, so all of them are supported. The value of direct effect of the variable “contact and attention to ads” on the variable “advertising effects” is relatively low (0.08), but it has indirect effect on the variable “advertising effects” via the mediatory variable “positive attitude toward ads” with the coefficient of 0.027. So, the value of total effect of “contact and attention to ads” on “advertising effects” is equal to 0.106. The value of indirect effect of “website selection for publishing ads” through the variable “degree of product involvement” on “positive attitude toward ads” is 0.103 and on “advertising effects” is 0.121. The variable “degree of product involvement” has an indirect effect on “advertising effects” through the mediatory variable “positive attitude toward ads” with the coefficient of 0.059. The variable “advertising content design” through two intermediary variables “degree of product involvement” and “positive attitude toward ads” has an indirect effect on “advertising effects” with the coefficient of 0.191 and also it indirectly affects “positive attitude toward ads” via “degree of product involvement” with the coefficient of 0.044. As a whole, it can be said that the variables “advertising content design” and “website selection for publishing ads”, have the greatest effects on the variable “advertising effects” with the coefficient of 0.47 and 0.301, respectively.
Conclusions This paper has examined the effective factors of interactive banner ads on tourists. The relationship among “contact and attention to ads”, “advertising content design”, “positive attitude toward ads”, “degree of product involvement”, “website selection for publishing ads” and “advertising effects” and also their direct and indirect effects on “advertising effects” were investigated. The variable “advertising content design” with the coefficient of 0.47 and “website selection for publishing ads” with the coefficient of 0.301 have the greatest effects (direct and indirect effects) on “advertising effects”. Suggestions, which can be stated for improving the effectiveness of banner advertising on the audience, are related to the variables “advertising content design” and “website selection for publishing ads”. Since only these two variables are under the control of advertisers. With regard to the variable “advertising content design”, the content of ads is a success factor in Internet advertising. If the content of ad is in harmony with customer’s attitudes, beliefs and values, the effectiveness of advertising will be increased. The content of internet banners includes some variables such as background color, images, audio and visual effects, text, creativity, frequency, interaction, size, location, dynamic techniques and overall appearance. Also, the use of interactive elements leads to more influence on the audience. Another issue is associated with “website selection for publishing ads”. The number of available websites for publishing ads is very abundant, so choosing the most appropriate website requires more deep thought. Also, the traffic of ads on some websites causes lack of focus and distraction and leads to negative attitude toward ads. The existence of competitive advertisings on the websites causes lack of remembrance and the audience’s attitude toward ads will disappear, and consequently the advertising effects will be reduced. Therefore, advertisers must pay attention to this point for choosing the appropriate website to publish their ads.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
internet advertising effects, degree of product involvement, advertising content design, users’ positive attitude toward ads, website selection for publishing ads