برندسازی مقصد گردشگری یکی از استراتژیهای نسبتاً نوظهور در جذب گردشگران میباشد. این استراتژی، ابزار کارآمد برای بازاریابی مقصدهای گردشگری است زیرا برند، به مقصد گردشگری هویت و شخصیت میدهد و آن را از سایر مقصدهای گردشگری متمایز میسازد. از جمله مولفههای مطرح در برندسازی، رضامندی و وفاداری گردشگران میباشد. رضامندی گردشگران سازه ای چند بعدی است که از عوامل متعددی متاثر بوده و نقش مهمی در ایجاد وفاداری گردشگران و نهایتاً موفقیت بلندمدت این صنعت ایفا میکند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بهره گیری از مدل «ارزش ویژه برند مشتری محور برای مقصدهای گردشگری» در تبیین میزان رضامندی و وفاداری گردشگران خارجی است. پژوهش حاضر به شیوه پیمایشی و بر روی نمونهای از 100 گردشگر خارجی که در سال 92 از اصفهان بازدید کرده بودند صورت گرفت. از بین دوازده فرضیه مطرح شده بر اساس چارچوب نظری و پیشینه پژوهشها، شش فرضیه مورد تایید قرار گرفت. بر این اساس آگاهی و شناخت گردشگران از اصفهان و تصویر اصفهان به مثابه یک مقصد گردشگری در نزد گردشگران نقش زیادی در کیفیت ادراک شده گردشگران از خدمات ارایه شده دارد. از طرف دیگر تصویری که گردشگران خارحی از اصفهان در ذهن دارند و آن را تداعی میکنند نه بهطور مستقیم بلکه از طریق ارزش ادراک شده و کیفیت ادراک شده بر رضامندی گردشگران تاثیر دارد. رضامندی گردشگران نیز رابطه نیرومندی با افزایش وفاداری گردشگران به مقصد بهصورت افزایش احتمال بازدید مجدد یا توصیه اصفهان به دیگران دارد. در نهایت این پژوهش نشان می دهد که می توان از مدل «ارزش ویژه برند» بهعنوان چارچوب منتظم برای درک مکانیزمهای تاثیرگذار بر رضامندی و وفاداری گردشگران استفاده کرد.
An Investigation of Determinants of Satisfaction of Foreign Tourists and Level of Loyalty in Isfahan as a Tourism Destination Brand
Tourism Destination Branding is relatively one of the new strategies to attract tourists. Although this approach has been introduced earlier in the field of marketing, it is possible to apply its potentials to tourism places and destinations as well. Branding of tourism destinations is an effective tool for marketing because brand can give identity and personality to the destination and can distinguish it from other tourist destinations. Among the factors considered in branding are satisfaction and loyalty tourism. In this research, we attempted to empirically examine tourist satisfaction and loyalty according to the model of “Consumer-Based Brand Equity for a Tourism Destination”.This research is based on a survey carried out on 100 foreign tourists who visited Isfahan in 1392. The results of the research show that tourist awareness and recognition of Isfahan and the Image of Isfahan as a tourism destination among tourists has an important role in the perceived quality of tourist services. On the other hand, the image which tourists have in their minds and recalling it, not directly but through perceived value and perceived quality has an impact on tourists' satisfaction. Tourist satisfaction has a strong relationship with tourist loyalty in destination that represents with likelihood of revisiting or recommends Isfahan to others. All in all, this research shows that it is possible to apply the model of “Brand Equity” as an organized framework to understanding effective mechanisms on satisfaction and loyalty of tourist.
One of the main strategies in introducing a place and showing its potentials to tourists is tourism destination branding. Now, branding is an efficient tool for marketing of tourism destination, because brand gives identity and personality to tourism destination and distinguishes it from other tourism destinations (Qu et al. 2011). About branding, concept of “Consumer-Based Brand Equity for a Tourism Destination” as a strategic marketing tool reflects consumer views to brand (Lim &Weaver, 2014). The theoretical framework of this research is based on Aker (1991, 1991), Keller (1998, 2003) and Konecnick and Gartner (1997), in which these variables were considered: Brand Awareness, perceived quality, brand association, perceived value (as a conceptual dimension), Satisfaction and Loyalty (as a behavioral dimension).
Materials and Methods
The aim and orientation of present research is practical one and as strategy, places in quantitative and survey researches. The statistical population of this research is all of the foreign tourists who were visited popular locations of Isfahan and were staying in hotels. Since there were not any exact statistics from tourists who entered to Isfahan, 100 foreign tourists was chosen with convenience sampling method to complete questionnaire. The main variables were included on destination awareness, perceived quality, image destination, perceived value, satisfaction, destination loyalty and also age, gender, education, ethnicity, marital status, job situation, all were considered as control variable. Totally, according to these variables, twelve hypotheses were proposed. Construct validity was used to validation of variables and Cronbach’s alpha to assess reliability. To examine the relationships between variables, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) from Amos Graphic software was used.
Discussion and Results
56.2 of respondents were men and 43.8 were women. The average age of respondents was about 42 years that the most was for 25 years respondents. As job situation %4.1 of respondents had part-time job, %59.2 full-time job, %3.1 were looking for job, %2 women were house worker, %14.3 retired and %15.3 students. As marital status %50 were single and %45.9 married, %3.1 widows and only %1 divorced. And also %3.1 of respondents had grade school, % 59.2 colleges/ university degree and % 16.3 higher university degrees (mastering and PhD). As Ethnicity 79% were Caucasian, %17 Asian, and %4 others. The results of the partial correlation coefficients with control of demographic variables show that most of the variables have significant relationship with each other. But between destination awareness and satisfaction and loyalty, there were not significant relationship among samples. And also between perceived value and destination image and perceived quality there were not any significant relationship as well. The results of Structural Equation Modeling show that destination awareness has significant effects on destination perceived quality and destination image, while were not significant relationship with perceived value among of samples. Similarly, Perceived quality does not have any direct significant relationship with destination loyalty, but through satisfaction have indirectly influence on destination loyalty. On the other side, perceived image have indirect effect on satisfaction through perceived value and perceived quality. Eventually, the results show that destination satisfaction is the strongest variable that influencing destination loyalty.
The results of research show that satisfaction from destination services play important role to make destination tourist’s loyalty to revisit and recommend it to others. As researches shows, most of the tourism destinations rely on repeat tourists. So, the investment on this part of tourists has relatively less expense compared with investing for attracting new tourists. This point needs to study about the mechanisms of increasing loyalty such as particular attention on improving tourist satisfaction from the quality of services.