یکی از اهداف صنعت گردشگری ایجاد رفاه، امنیت و آسایش روانی برای گردشگران است. هدف از این تحقیق مطالعهی ضرورت امنیت اجتماعی گردشگران در شهر مشهد است. در این نوشتار با توجه به رهیافتهای جامعهشناختی، امنیت اجتماعی گردشگر برای رسیدن به یک آرامش خاطر پایدار با تأکید بر عواملی از جمله: امنیت در اماکن عمومی و اقامتی، عملکرد پلیس، نیروی انسانی متخصص جهت راهنمایی گردشگران و تبلیغات رسانهای مورد نظر است. این پژوهش بهصورت روش پیمایشی و از ابزار پرسشنامهی مصاحبهای، جامعهی مورد مطالعهی گردشگران داخلی مراکز اقامتی مستقر در منطقهی ثامن مشهد را برابر با حجم نمونهی آماری 395 نفر و با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری خوشهای چند مرحلهای انتخاب کرده است. آلفای کرونباخ در حدود 70 درصد بوده که جامعهی میهمان از میزان روایی نسبتاً بالایی احساس امنیت در مشهد برخوردار بوده است. تحلیل یافتهها بیانگر این است: با افزایش امنیت در فضاهای عمومی امنیت اجتماعی در بین زائران نیز، افزایش مییابد. عملکرد بهینه و بهموقع پلیس در هنگام خطر، میزان امنیت گردشگران را افزایش میدهد. آموزش نیروهای انسانی متخصص جهت راهنمایی گردشگران، میزان امنیت اجتماعی گردشگران را افزایش خواهد داد. همچنین بین تبلیغات رسانهای و میزان امنیت اجتماعی گردشگران رابطهی معناداری وجود دارد. بر این اساس میتوان برای توسعهی جامعهشناختی صنعت گردشگری کلانشهر مشهد، راهبردها و برنامهریزیهای فرهنگی و اجتماعی پیشنهاد داد.
Social Security; A Requirement to Promote Tourism Industry
(A Case Study of Mashhad Metropolis)
One of the aims of tourism industry is to provide welfare, security, and mental comfort for tourists. This research aims at studying the necessity of providing social security for tourists in Mashhad. The current study focuses on sociological approaches regarding the tourists’ social security, in order for the tourists to enjoy an enduring peace of mind, emphasizing on factors including security in public and residential places, police’s performance, expert human resources for guiding the tourists, and media advertisements. This research was conducted as a survey using questionnaires to investigate 395 domestic tourists accommodated in residential centers in Samen area of Mashhad, who were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Cronbach's alpha was about 70% which indicated the relatively high validity of the visitors’ society in terms of feeling secure in Mashhad. The findings reveal that as the security in public places increases, the social security among the tourists also increases. The police are optimized and timely performance in emergency events also increases the tourists’ security. Training human resources as experts in guiding the tourists also enhances the tourists’ social security. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between media advertisements and the tourists’ social security. Accordingly, cultural and social guidelines and plans can be suggested to sociologically develop the tourism industry of the metropolis Mashhad.
Flourishing of tourism industry in Iran is a means to reflect the current security of the society, as it actually is, in international setting. In addition, pilgrimage and religious tourism are rooted in the society’s religious beliefs. The holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S) located in this city has turned it into one of the most important national and international Shiites’ religious destinations. During recent decades, due to the increase in the number of tourists and pilgrims, the everyday social flow of life in Mashhad, in any moment and any public, cultural, recreational and spiritual places, is part of everyday life of Mashhad citizens. As a result, it seems that, in recent decades, the pilgrims’ social security is of great importance to municipal, cultural, scientific and security managers of Mashhad metropolis.
Materials and Methods
Based on a combination of theoretical approaches such as social security, Maslow’s theory of needs, and symbolic interactionism among others, it can be said that if the tourists’ needs are not identified and fulfilled, their satisfaction will decrease (Maslow’s theory), and the action resulted from the tourists’ mental interpretation regarding the feeling of security (symbolic interactionism theory) will not take place. Moreover, a brief look at the mentioned issues will draw attentions to the fact that security is a multi-layered and multi-level concept which does not easily render a uniform definition. However, this variety of definitions and complexity in its analytic levels does not imply fragmentation and lack of commonalities among them. In this research, through a survey study with researcher-made interview questionnaires, the documents on social security and tourism were studied. The sample of the study included all (domestic) tourists accommodated in welfare accommodations and services of municipality of Samen district of Mashhad in 2013, with 395 participants. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to select the sample, and face validity was used to measure the validity of the questionnaire. To check the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha, the value of which is more than 70%, has been employed. Eventually, statistical methods (multivariate regression analysis and Pearson test) have been used to analyze the data.
Results and Discussion
Table of distribution of the tourists’ general features indicates that the gender distribution is almost equal; about half of the population, 50.63 %, were men, and 49.36% were women. The data in the table also reveal that 76.44% of the tourists feel a high level of security in Mashhad, while 21.48%, and 2.04% of them, respectively, feel an average and low level of security. Regarding the tourists’ evaluation of the spread of delinquency and crimes around the holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S), 36.55%, 37.8%, and 26.33% of the respondents referred to these issues, and expressed, respectively, a high, average and low dissatisfaction. With regard to the results of Pearson correlation test, there is a significant relationship between two variables of security in public places and social security. There is also a direct relationship between security in the tourists’ accommodations and social security. According, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship and a strong correlation between security in the tourists’ accommodations and social security. It indicates that with police’s optimized and timely performance in times of emergency, the feeling of security in tourists and pilgrims increases. There is also a significant relationship between increasing the expert human resources and social security. In addition, there is a direct relationship between media advertisements and social security. It is worth mentioning that there are four variables remaining in the final model of the regression table, which are as follows: security in public places with 0.297 Beta, security in accommodations with 0.501 Beta, police’s performance with 0.756 Beta, expert human resources with 0.688 Beta, and media advertisements with 0.575 Beta have the highest influence on the tourists’ social security. According to these findings, the police’s performance is the most effective factor in predicting social security, having the biggest values of Beta. Media advertisements, expert human resources in tourism and hospitality services, the security of tourists’ accommodations, etc., respectively, had the highest influence on the dependent variable of social security of the tourists and pilgrims.
According to the findings, security in public places including shopping centers, traffic routes, etc., is one of the variables relating to social security, and it is an important aspect of developing tourism industry. The findings of this study also reveal that the necessity to provide stable social and public security of the tourists and pilgrims in Mashhad is among the most important plans of the officials to influence the visitors’ attitudes. The tourists’ safety and financial security is of great importance which is dependent on the police’s performance. To improve the social security, it is also necessary to have formal and informal media advertisements in order to keep the pilgrims informed. In the current study, the police’s active role and intelligent performance in times of emergency have been the most important factors affecting the tourists’ and pilgrims’ social security in Mashhad. Altogether, the holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S) locating in Mashhad has bestowed on this city a unique spirituality and holiness. If accompanied by the tourists’ comfort and social security, this spiritual soul can transmit culture, promote the religion, and remove the misconceptions about the security in our country.