امروزه با توجه به مشکلات فراوان اقتصادی جوامع روستایی، توجه به فعالیتهای جدید مانند گردشگری در نواحی روستایی امری ضروری میباشد. از ویژگیهای گردشگری بخصوص در نواحی روستایی، ماهیت پراکنده بودن آن است. از مهمترین اثرات مثبت گردشگری میتوان به توسعه کسب و کارهای مربوط به آن اشاره کرد. یکی از مسائلی که باعث توسعه این کسب و کارها میشود، روابط آنها در قالب شبکه میباشد. از این روی پرداختن به رویکرد تحلیل شبکهای و کاربردهای آن در توسعه گردشگری بسیار ضروری میباشد. در این تحقیق با مرور ادبیات موجود، به بررسی ابعاد مختلف نظری و روششناسی شبکه، سابقه کاربرد تحلیل شبکهای در موضوعات مختلف، ظهور آن در گردشگری و کاربرد آن و در انتها به بررسی روابط بین مراکز اقامتی گردشگری روستایی واقع در روستاهای بخش لاریجان شهرستان آمل با رویکرد تحلیل شبکه پرداخته شده است. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی است که به روش پیمایشی انجامگرفته است. جامعه آماری، صاحبان مراکز اقامتی گردشگری بخش لاریجان به تعداد ۳۲ نفر بوده که پرسشنامهای ماتریسی بهمنظور تعیین روابط بین آنها اجرا شد. همچنین از نظریه و مدل تحلیل شبکه و با استفاده از نرم افزار Ucinet و آزمونهای تراکم، درجه، دوسویگی، انتقال پذیری، E-I و غیره جهت تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها و از انواع گرافها جهت نمایش روابط بهره برده شد. نتایج نشان میدهد میزان روابط در بین مراکز اقامتی به میزان پایینی بوده و اغلب به صورت محلی بروز پیدا میکند.
An Investigation of the Relationship between Rural Tourism and Residential Centers with Network Analysis Approach
(Case study: Rural Residential Center, Sofla Larijan, Amol)
One of the strategies regarding the growth of rural regions in most countries is to promote rural tourism. One of the features of rural tourism is its fragmented physical nature, therefore, in recent years rural tourism networks have received a special concern. In most countries, rural tourism networks concept is growing in importance. In the economics of many countries the concept works better in tourism than in other sectors. An analytic approach on rural tourism networks and its application in development of tourism is of essence. In this study review of existing literature, theoretical and methodological dimensions of the network, the application of network analysis on variety of topics, the risen tourism and Finally, its application to Investigate the relationship between rural tourism residential centers with network analysis approach in Larijan. Research methods descriptive-analytic survey was conducted. Also the theory and network analysis model and using Ucinet software and Density tests, degrees, reciprocity, transferability, E-I, etc. to analyzed at from a variety of graphs to show the relationship. The results show a low-level of relationship between rural tourism in residential centers.
Introduction In most rural areas the economy has declined to a point where the income from traditional agricultural activities has reached bellow the average per capita point income. Moreover the high unemployment, the youth and educated migration has put the rural areas at risk. To overcome this problem, developing rural tourism not only can be a potential means in changing the situation, but can become an inseparable element in the economic growth. Geographically speaking, the tourism attractions are located in regions away from where the main markets are, where small independent businesses are active in an irregular working environment. In such regimes the survival of the new comers depends on the group work. In fact tourism is a defined system where the internal dependencies are necessary in the region; hence, cooperation among the different tourism goods producing and services providing firms and institutions is of essence.In a sense the small size of the tourism businesses as well as their being segregated forces them to conjoin for sustainability. Their existence contributes to the local economic welfare. The regions developed for rural tourism in the recent years are located in the Larijan district of Amol city in Mazandaran province. Among the regions where rural tourism has evolved totally is where this case study is being conducted on. This region is not far from the capital city Tehran, Mazandaran, Alborz etc.
Materials and Methods Analytical study is that the survey was conducted. Bipartite and numerical study documents that the evidence gathered through library research literature was discussed. The part number that includes a field survey instrument, data collection, questionnaire. Statistical Society, owners of residential centers larijan of 32 subjects who were administered a questionnaire matrix to determine the relationships between them. Also the theory and network analysis model and using Ucinet software and Density tests, degrees, reciprocity, transferability, E-I, etc. to analyze data from a variety of graphs to show the relationship has benefited.
Discussion and Results The relationship between the density values of 0.0817 or 8.17% of the study area is residential centers (of 992 transplants could be accomplished only 81 transplants), This means that only 8% of our residential centers that are very weak and fragile connection to the network. Reciprocity index value between the lodgings of our study area, 0.2462, or 24.62%, ie 24.62% of the residential centers, reciprocal and mutual relationship with each other. Transitivity index value in relation to other lodgings in the study area is 34.26%. Namely the possibility of communicating with each third party that looks fairly decent amount. Noted that the rate of transmission is greater, greater network stability. E-I index of relations between our residential centers for the entire network in terms of income groups 0.354- or 35.4% - depending on the position of 0.692- or 69.2% - were for the entire network.
Conclusions In tourism industry, the rural tourism in specific most businesses are small or medium (SMEs) and family oriented with their considerable contributions to the national economy in all respects. Globalization has put the tourism business under pressure; while on the other hand, globalization can provide circumstances for the world free market manipulation. Accordingly, the rural tourism destinations should establish strong networks of cooperation among the tourism business based on developed strategies to resist the competition on international basis. This study investigated the relationship between residential centers located in larijan network analysis approach using the analytic survey was conducted. Overall, these results indicate that residential care is the poor relation. Very few residential centers (8%) had a 24% correlation with each other, it is a mutual and reciprocal. Important factor in the relationship between residential centers, income, position, friendship and kinship and trust in one another. The issue of trust among the worst in the study area is residential centers. Of course, many other residential centers want a relationship with your colleagues if there are favorable conditions (mutual trust, not abuse, monitor and manage the behavior of residential centers, etc.) are. So the fact that a relatively large number of small businesses with limited resources to pursue sustainable development cannot be isolated, the network approach is essential in tourism.