بازاریابی اجتماعی می کوشد با بهره مندی از اصول بازاریابی تجاری بر رفتار و نگرش افراد تاثیرگذار باشد. از طرفی به منظور توسعه گردشگری سلامت به عنوان یکی از حوزه های نوین گردشگری مدرن نیاز حیاتی به ایجاد نگرش مطلوب از مقصد وجود دارد. بدین منظور می توان از اصول بازاریابی اجتماعی به منظور توسعه تصویر مطلوب از مقصد در ذهن گردشگران سلامت بهره برد. از اینرو هدف اصلی این تحقیق سنجش بازاریابی اجتماعی در گردشگری سلامت ایران می باشد. بدین منظور از روش تحقیق آمیخته اکتشافی استفاده شده است. نوع تحقیق در مرحله طراحی مدل، بنیادین و در مرحله آزمون مدل، کاربردی می باشد. در بخش کیفی از روش های تحلیل محتوای کیفی و روش کدگذاری نظری و در بخش کمی از معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد با استفاده از ابزارهای بازاریابی اجتماعی می توان با ایجاد باور مثبت نسبت به مقصد گردشگری سلامت زمینه بروز تمایل به سفر درمانی را فراهم آورد. عوامل مدل بازاریابی اجتماعی در گردشگری سلامت شامل رهبری بازارگرا، تحلیل و درک بازار گردشگری سلامت، راهبرد بازاریابی اجتماعی، زیر ساخت های بازاریابی، آمیخته بازاریابی اجتماعی و مولفه های شناختی می باشد. همچنین نتایج تحقیق حکایت از تایید مدل کاربرد عوامل بازاریابی اجتماعی در گردشگری سلامت با استفاده از مدل معادلات ساختاری دارد.
Extended Abstract Introduction The most important priority in social marketing is influencing the attitudes and behaviors of people in different societies in order to reform such attitudes and improve their misbehavior; approaches that can in the long run lead to an improvement in attitudes of people and bring about a positive voluntary conduct. It is predicted by experts that in 2020 tourism industry will become world's most profitable industry. Researchers are of the opinion that the attitudes of tourists toward their destinations are some of the most important factors in the development of health tourism. This principle can be used to develop a favorable image in the minds of health tourists since the principles of social marketing can be used to eliminate tourists' poor attitudes and help create favorable attitudes in them. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to provide a social marketing model to change tourists' attitudes toward health tourism in the Iran.
Research Method In this study, a mixed exploratory method was used. At first, the qualitative data were collected and studied in order to analyze the phenomena and then the quantitative data were analyzed and collected in order to determine the type of relationships that existed between the variables. In order to design a health tourism model, the phenomenon were studied through using qualitative methods and through interviews. Constituent components were also identified in health tourism. And in order to test the model, the researchers tested the validity of the criteria identified in the exploratory stage of the research; moreover, in order to communicate with them, factor analysis and path analysis methods were investigated through the application of structural equation.
Discussion and results Social marketing model in health tourism corresponds with the conditions of Iran; and it is hoped that the inability to have an approach that is solely based on values are resolved through social marketing. It is also worth mentioning that rational logic in social marketing model is the one derived from the theory of social judgment. In accordance with the model derived from qualitative study, market-oriented leadership was introduced as an independent variable in achieving social marketing strategies through analyzing and understanding health tourism and its infrastructure. Hence, the first and third assumptions were confirmed that in order to assess the impact of market-oriented leadership on the infrastructure of marketing, social marketing strategies should be studied in order to better understand health tourism market. Based on these findings, it can be proposed that through the analysis of the macro-environment of health tourism market and an improved skill in understanding the market, it would be possible to develop a culture of value for the components of infrastructure of marketing.
Conclusions Finally, considering the impact of social marketing on the components of beliefs, emotions and behavioral intentions, it was found that tourists' attitudes and behaviors could be altered through designing and integrating social marketing mix. These findings further demonstrated that social marketing could play a vital role in health tourism. Moreover, it showed that the senior management of an organization could have a valuable role in improving social marketing.
Keywords: Social Marketing Mix, Value Creation, Health Management, Mix Method. References:
Aminbidokhti, A., Zargar, M. and Nazari, M. (2009). Strategic marketing mix in tourism industry, Journal of Strategic Management Studies, 1(3): 49-68. (In Persian) Azhdari, A., Nayebzadeh, S. and Heyrani, F. (2105). The effect of social responsibility on brand equity of hospital, Journal of Tolooe of Behdasht, 12(2): 23-37. (In Persian) Bach, M.P., Zorojam, J., and Merkac, M. (2014). Social responsibility in tourism: system archetypes approach, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 43 (3/4): 86-102. Cant, M.C., Strydom, C., Jooste, P. and Plessis, F. (2009). Marketing Management, 15th ed, Juta Academic and Company Ltd. Carvalho, H. and Mazzon, J.A. (2015). A better life is possible: the ultimate purpose of social marketing, Journal of Social Marketing, 5)2(: 169 –186. Chandrasekar, K.S. (2010). Marketing Management: Text & Cases, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Cohn, L., Hernandez, D. and Thresa, C. (2002). A program to increase seatbelt use along the Texas-Mexico border, American Journal of Public Health, 92(12): 1918-1920. Coles, T., Fenclova, E. and Dinan, C. (2014). Tourism and corporate social responsibility: A critical review and research agenda, Tourism Management Perspectives, 6: 122–141. Danaeifard, H., Alvani, M. and Azar, A. (2003). Qualitative Methodology in Management: A Comprehensive Approach, Publication of Safar. (In Persian) Ezadi, M., Ayoobian, A. and Nasiri, T. (2011). Opportunity or threat of health tourism in Iran, Journal of Military Medicine, 14(2): 69-75. (In Persian) Farhangi, A., Karoobi, M. and Vaziri, F. (2015). Classic grounded theory: Explaining production center of gravity theory of health tourism brand identity, Journal of Business Administration, 7(2): 145-162. (In Persian) Gasemi, F. and Bordbari, G. (2014). The effect of social marketing mix effectiveness on advertising, Journal of Tomorrow Management, 40(2): 63-76. (In Persian) Goodarzi, M. and Taghvaei, M. (2014). Development of domestic medical tourism in Shiraz, Journal of Health Information Management, 4 (11): 485-496. (In Persian) Guidry, J.P., Waters, R.D. and Saxton, G.D. (2014). Moving social marketing beyond personal change to social change: Strategically using Twitter to mobilize supporters into vocal advocates, Journal of Social Marketing, 4(3): 240 - 260. Haghighi, M., Ziyaei, M. and Jafari, G. (2005). Prioritize the factors associated with the development of health tourism in Iran, Journal of Tourism Studies, 11(2): 23-40. (In Persian) Hasangholipor, T., Moosavi, N. and Taheri, M. (2014). Islamic Republic of Iran aspects of power based social marketing approach, Journal of Islamic Revolution, 4(12): 59-79. (In Persian) Hatami, H., Poorahmad, A. and Ghalibaf, M. (2014). Aspects of urban development approach by marketing social marketing, Journal of Economics and Urban Management, 8(3): 79-96. (In Persian) Hesse, B. and Sharlene, N. (2010). Mixed Methods Research: Merging Theory with Practice, 1th ed, Publisher Guilford Press. Inoue, Y. and Lee, S. (2011). Effects of different dimensions of corporate social responsibility on corporate financial performance in tourism-related industries, Tourism Management, 32(2): 790-804. Kamin, T. and Anker, T. (2014). Cultural capital and strategic socialmarketing orientations, Journal of Social Marketing, 4(2): 94-110. Katsioloudes, M., Grant, J. and McKechnie, D.S. (2007). Social marketing: strengthening company‐customer bonds, Journal of Business Strategy, 28(3): 56-64. Khodadhoseini, H. and Mosayebi, A. (2014). The effect credibility of sport clubs on the fan behavior change based on social marketing approach, Journal of Sport Management, 4(1): 627-642. (In Persian) Khorshidi, G. and Moghadami, S. (2004). Explaining the concept of social marketing, Journal of Commerce, 28(3): 141-163. (In Persian) Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2013). Principle of Marketing, 15th ed, Prentice Hall. Kotler, P. and Lee, N. (2008). Social Marketing: Influencing Behaviours for Good, 4th ed, Sage Publications. Kvale, J. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing, London: Sage Publications. Lefebvre, R.C. (2012). Transformative social marketing: co‐creating the social marketing discipline and brand, Journal of Social Marketing, 2(1): 513 - 521. lendis, D. (2011). Social Marketing for Recycling in Ohio, Translated by Mohammad Reza Javadi, Tehran: Publication of Tarhe of Ayande. (In Persian) Lewis, A. (2008). The Cambridge handbook of psychology and economic behaviour, Cambridge University Press, Journal of Economic Issues, 43(3): 825-827. Locke, K.D. (2003). Grounded Theory in Management Research, London: SAGE Publications. McKinsey, K. and Company, C. (2006). The McKinsey Global Survey of Business Executives: Business and Society, McKinsey & Company, New York, NY. McDonald, M. (2004). Marketing Plans: How to Prepare Them, How to Use Them, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Noori, S., Jabari, A. and Dehnaviye, R. (2014). Hospital readiness for entry into medical tourism, Journal of Health Information Management, 4(11): 506-514. (In Persian) Raina A.K. (2005). Ecology Wildlife and Tourismdevelopment: Principles, Practices and Strategies, New Delhi: Published by Sarup. Rezaei, H. and Keshavarz, N. (2014). Social Marketing Approach in Health Care: A study review, Journal of health education and promotion of health, 6(1): 109-123. (In Persian) Ritson, M. (2003). Polysemy: The Multiple Meanings of Advertising, European Advances in Consumer Research, 21(2): 341-356. Minazzi, R. (2015). Social media marketing in tourism and hospitality, Annals of Tourism Research, 7(2): 253 – 270. Sanchez, R. and Iniesta, M.A. (2006). Consumer perception of value: literature review and a new conceptual framework, Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 19(40): 67-81. Shizumu, K. (2003). Symbiotic Marketing Strategy, Souseisha Book Company: Japan. Singal, M. (2014). Corporate social responsibility in the hospitality and tourismindustry: Do family control and financial condition matter?, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36(3): 81– 89. Smeltzer, J.L., Neiger, B. and Mckenzie, A. (2005). Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs, 4th ed, USA: Pearson Benjamin cummings. Solomon, M.R. (2007). Consumer Behavior, 7th ed, Prentice Hall: New Jersey. Stead, M., Gordon, R. and McDermott, L. (2007). A Systematic review of social marketing effectiveness, Journal oHealth Education, 107(2): 126-140. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 2th ed, Sage, Thousand Oaks: CA. Sukia, N.M., Sukib, N.M. and Amana, N. (2016). Impacts of corporate social responsibility on the links between green marketing awareness and consumer purchase intentions, Procedia Economics and Finance, 37(2): 262 – 268. Tabibi, J., Nasiri, A. and Ayoobian, A. (2012). Mechanisms to inform and attract medical tourists in a hospital in Tehran, Journal of Health Information Management, 3(9): 416-423. (In Persian) Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Watson, J., Steven, L., Tamara, G. and Leslie, R. (2002). Cultural values and important possessions: A cross-cultural analysis, Journal of Business Research, 12(55): 923-31. Wen, S. (2010). Linking Bayesian networks and PLS path modeling for causal analysis, Expert Systems with Applications, 37(1): 134–139. Wong, F., Huhman, M., Heitzler, C. and londe, P. (2004). A Social marketing campaign to increase physical activity among youth, Public Health Research, Practice and Policy, 1(3): 2-12. Zupan, S. and Milfelner, B. (2014). Social responsibility, motivation and satisfaction: small hotels guests’ perspective, Group Publishing Limited, 43(3/4): 513-528.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Social Marketing Mix, value creation, Health Management, Mix Method