دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
هدف این مقاله بررسی رابطه گردشگری با هویت اجتماعی جوانان روستایی شهرستان اردبیل میباشد. این تحقیق از لحاظ هدف، توسعهای، و از لحاظ ماهیت، توصیفی و پیمایشی و نیز از نوع علی-مقایسهای و تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه جوانان روستایی ساکن در دهستان «سردابه» میباشد. با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری تصادفی ساده و بر اساس فرمول کوکران، تعداد نمونه مناسب برای این تحقیق 385 نفر بدست آمد؛ از سویی، برای برابری در آزمون و نتیجه، 385 از جوانان روستایی ساکن در دهستان فاقد گردشگری «بالغلو» به عنوان گروه شاهد انتخاب شدند. این تحقیق به روش پیمایشی با استفاده از پرسشنامه انجام گردیده است. روایی صوری پرسشنامه توسط پانل متخصصان مورد تایید قرار گرفت. مطالعه راهنما در منطقه مشابه جامعه آماری با تعداد30 پرسشنامه صورت گرفت و با دادههای کسب شده و استفاده از فرمول ویژه کرونباخ آلفا در نرم افزار SPSS، کرونباخ برای بخشهای مختلف پرسشنامه 84/0 الی93/0 محاسبه شد. نتایج آزمون t در ارتباط با متغیر هویت اجتماعی دو گروه نشان میدهد بین متغیرهای هویت فردی و هویت گروهی با متغیر مستقل(توسعه گردشگری) رابطه معنیداری وجود ندارد. اما بین متغیرهای هویت مذهبی، هویت ملی، هویت خانوادگی و هویت جنسیتی با متغیر مستقل رابطه معنیداری وجود دارد. در نهایت، با توجه به نتیجه پژوهش پیشنهادات کاربردی ارائه شده است.
A Survey of the Relationship between Rural Tourism and Social Identity in Ardabil County
Case Study: Sardabhe Dehstan
Extended Abstract Introduction In psychology, sociology, anthropology and philosophy, identity comprise the conception, qualities, beliefs, and expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group). Identity may be distinguished from identification; identity is a label, whereas identification refers to the classifying act itself. Identity is thus best construed as being both relational and contextual, while the act of identification is best viewed as inherently procedural. That process can be creative or destructive. Having a sense of identity is important because it allows people to stand out as individuals, develop a sense of well-being and importance, and fit in with certain groups and cultures. Many cultures and societies place great value and significance on certain items, which hold symbolic meaning and gain respect from citizens. National flags, for instance, have distinct colors and patterns, and symbolize past achievements intimately familiar to citizens. Identity tourism research dates back to a 1984 special issue of Annals of Tourism Research guest edited by Pierre L. van den Berghe and Charles F. Keyes. This volume examines the ways in which tourism intersects with the (re-)formation and revision of various forms of identity, particularly ethnic and cultural identities. Since that time, various scholars have examined the intersection between dimensions of identity and tourism. An important early contribution to the study of identity tourism was Lanfant, Allcock and Bruner's 1995 edited volume "International Tourism, Identity and Change. As with the Keyes and van den Berghe special issue of Annales of Tourism Research, this volume moved us away from studying the impact of tourism on identity to investigating the intersection of tourism and identity in more dynamic ways, among other things looking at how "local" and "tourist" identities are mutually-constructed. Likewise, Michel Picard and Robert Wood's path-breaking edited volume "Tourism, Ethnicity and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies" (1997, University of Hawaii Press), examined the ways in which tourism intersections with ethnic, cultural, regional and national identities, as well as with the political agendas of Pacific island and Southeast Asian states. Abrams, Waldren and Mcleod's 1997 volume Tourists and Tourism: Identifying with People and Places also offered compelling case studies examining issues surrounding the construction of identity in the context of tourism. Among other things the chapters in their volume investigated tourists' views of themselves and others in the course of their travels, the relationship of travelers to resident populations, and the ways in which tourists' quests for authenticity are entangled with their own sensibilities about their own identities. Although the economic and social aspects of rural tourism development have been widely examined and debated, little attention has been paid to the impact of rural tourism development on the cultural construct of rural life (i.e., residents’ rural identities). In this study I explored the role of tourism development in changing rural identities in the context of Iran, which has been experiencing rapid urbanization and rural reconstructing processes in recent years. This paper aims to investigate of rural tourism on social Identity in the rural areas of Ardabil County.
Materials and Methods This paper aims to investigate of rural tourism on social Identity in the rural areas of Ardabil County. This study is descriptive - analytical in terms of research methods, practical in terms of nature and is a library and field kind of research in terms of the type of data collection. Sample size was determined based on the Cochran’s formula and the required data were collected through questionnaires. Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and its reliability was determined based on Cronbach's alpha (0.84-0.93). Discussion and Results Nowadays, tourism is considered as the most comprehensive service industry of the world that has acquired a special place in economic, cultural, social, and political realms. Worldwide changes in the aftermath of the Second World War regarding the prevalence of urbanization, large cities, urban environmental pollutions, and the increase of leisure time resulted in the expansion of rural tourism. In the following decades, tourism was considered as a tool for rural development. Therefore, pundits have tried, by means of different patterns, to promote the role of tourism in the rural social development. the results of research show that there is a significant difference between respondents of Sardabhe and Balighlu Dehstan in variables of national, household, religion and gender with independent variable. Also, these results show that there is no significant difference in group and individual between respondents. Finally, according to research findings practical suggestions are presented. To understand the features of local residents’ rural identity, change and its underlying mechanism, I conducted a case study in Ardabil County (Sardabhe Dehstan). Through the collection of on-site materials, participant observation, and individual interviews, my study: 1) examined the patterns of local residents’ rural identity changes and the underlying reasons behind the changes; 2) explored the detailed transformation of everyday life and performance of rural residents, and how it has influenced the mentality and identity of Ardabil County (Sardabhr Dehstan) residents. The results indicated that rural identities in Ardabil County did experience changes over the course of tourism development. Conclusion The results of T-Test show that there is a significant difference between respondents of Sardabhe and Balighlu Dehstan in variables of national, household, religion and gender with independent variable. Also, these results show that there is no significant difference in group and individual between respondents. Finally, according to research findings practical suggestions are presented.
Keywords: Social Identity, Rural Development, Tourism Rural, Young Villagers, Ardabil County. References
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کلیدواژه ها [English]
Social Identity, Rural Development, Tourism Rural, Young Villagers, Ardabil County